A brief explanation about Antenatal , Intranatal and postnatal care

Becoming a mother makes the feeling joyful, elated empowered and invincible.

Being a mother is the most rewarding experience. The motherboard is a unique time in her life.

Being a new mom can come with emotional inadequacy because there is learning warm involved.

Mother is like an angel for her child, who always love her child and support him/ her.

For every child, his mother has a special place in his heart because she is the first person the child sees after her birth.

Now, I am briefly explaining about the stages of child birth and mother stages.

1) Antenatal or prenatal care

It is the case of women during pregnancy. The primary aim of antenatal care is to achieve at the end of a pregnancy, a healthy mother and a healthy baby. Ideally, this care should begin soon after conception and continue throughout the pregnancy.

Objectives of antenatal care :

1) To promote, protect and maintain the health of the mother during pregnancy.

2) To detect high-risk cases and give them special attention.

3) To remove anxiety and fear associated with delivery.

4) To reduce maternal and infant mortality and morbidity.

5) To teach the mother elements of childcare, nutrition, personal hygiene and environmental sanitation.

6) To foresee complications and prevent them.

Pregnant mother

The above objectives are achieved by the following programme of the health care services:

1) Antenatatal visit

Ideally, the mother should attend the antenatal clinic once a month during the first 7 months and thereafter once a week if everything is normal.

Preventive services of mothers

First visit: a) Health history

b) physical examination

c) Laboratory examination

d) complete urine and stool examination

e) complete blood count including Hb estimation

f) serological examination

g) blood grouping and Rh determination

h) chest x-ray if needed

I) pap test

j ) gonorrhoea test, if needed

Prenatal advice

The mother is more receptive to advice concerning herself and her baby at this than at other times.

These are:

1) Diet

2) personal hygiene – rest and sleep, personal cleanliness, exercise, avoiding smoking alcohol consumption and restricting sexual intercourse during last semester.

3) Drugs

4) Radiation

5) warning signs like swelling of the feet, headache, blurring of the vision, bleeding discharge of the vagina

2) Child care

Now, there is some specific health protection needed:

Anaemia, other nutritional deficiencies, toxaemia of pregnancy, tetanus, syphilis, HIV infection and Rh status.

Intranatal care

Childbirth is a normal physiological process, but the complication may arise. Septicemia may result from unskilled and septic manipulations and tetanus neonatorum from the use of unsterilised instruments. The need for effective intranatal care is therefore indispensable, even if the delivery is going to be a normal one. The emphasis is on cleanliness which includes clean hands and fingers, nails, a clean surface for delivery, clean cutting and care of the cord by avoiding harm to Mother and baby.

The aims of good Intranatal care are:

1) Thorough asepsis

2) Delivery with minimum injury to the infant and mother.

3) Readiness to deal with the complication such as prolonged labour, antepartum haemorrhage, malpresentation, prolapse of the cord etc.

4) Care of the baby at delivery, resuscitation, care of the cord, care of the eyes.

Postnatal care

Care of the mother and the newborn baby after the delivery is known as postnatal care.

Care of the mother

The objectives are:

1) To prevent complications of the postpartum period.

2) To provide care of the rapid restoration of the mother to the optimum health.

3) To check the adequacy of breast feeding

4) To provide family planning services period.

5) To provide basic health education to the mother/ baby.

Complications of the postpartum period

1) puerperal sepsis

2) Thrombophlebitis

3) Secondary haemorrhage

4) others: urinary tract infections and mastitis

Restoration of mother to optimum health

The broad area of these cases are:

1) physical

a) postnatal examination

b) Routine haemoglobin examination

c) Nutrition — well-balanced diet

d) postnatal exercise



It is important to bring up the child in a wholesome family atmosphere.


Postnatal care offers an excellent opportunity to find out how the mother is getting along with her baby, particularly about the feeding.

For many children breastfeeding offers the main source of nourishment in the first year of life.

At the age of 4 to 5 months, breastfeeding should be supplemented with additional food rich in protein and other nutrients( animal milk, soft cooked mashed vegetables etc). This should be introduced very gradually in small amounts.

Now, all mothers and family members will take care of them.

Dr S.k.jha

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Sad mood

Nowadays, the mental health problem is increasing among people. A lot of people are suffering from different types of mental illness, which affects the mood, thinking and behaviour of the people.

Here, I am briefly discussing about one of the mental illness, which is known as OCD ( obsessive-compulsive disorder).

OCD is characterized by unreasonable thoughts and fears that lead to compulsive behaviour. It is a bit common in women than men. It is characterised by a recurrent obsession and compulsion that the patient experiences an involuntary, senseless and repugnant.

An example of compulsion is repeated checking to be assured that something was done properly or not, hand washing often, fears of germs or contamination and doubt.

Hand washing

Causes of OCD

The exact cause of OCD is not known. But, according to researchers, there are some factors:

1) Family History — the patients are more likely to have OCD if a family member also has the condition.

2) Biological causes— some researchers and scientists suggest an impaired function in certain areas of the brain or problems with the transmission of certain brain chemicals, such as serotonin and norepinephrine.

3) Environmental factors — it may be possible that trauma, abuse or other stressful events can play a part in the development of OCD and other mental health conditions.

Clinical symptoms

The exact cause of OCD is unknown. But, researchers and doctors believe that it may be due to a combination of neurological, environmental, genetic and psychological factors.

An imbalance of serotonin is also thought to play a major role.


1) Fear of contamination from dirt, illness or germs.

2) Excessive need to do things. Correctly or properly.

3) Persistent fears of tragic events.


1) Excessive clearing such as hand washing or reading the same line again and again

2) Repeatedly checking things like the stove, locks or homework.

3) asking others for reassurance

Having OCD is like being allergic to life- every walking movement is spent in a state of mental hypersensitivity.

4) counting items repeated

5) It usually begins in adolescence with around 65% of cases manifest before as 25%.

Most patients follow an episodic course with periods of incomplete remission.

Depression, substance abuse and social impairment are common.

It is believed that 1 in 100 children are suffering from OCD. About 12-15 million people may suffer from OCD at some point during their lifetimes.


Diagnosing OCD involves a psychiatric assessment and treatment aim to reduce the thoughts and compulsions associated with the condition. It is treated by medicine, therapy or a combination of both.

Some drugs such as clomipramine and fluoxetine are given in treating this case. Escitalopram, paroxetine is also given.

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and supportive psychotherapy can be helpful

Meditation and Relaxation — Yoga and massage can help with stressful OCD symptoms.

If you live with OCD, you might have a range of different symptoms.

Now, I think, I try my best to explain briefly about OCD as a mental disorder. I hope, all of you will like this topic.

With ICD, you may try to ignore them or push them out of your mind, but this is generally difficult or impossible.

Dr S.k.jha

Yoga: health, mind and body

Today we are celebrating International yoga day. Before, celebrating, we should know something about Yoga.

Yoga is an ancient practice that has originated in India. It involves movement, meditation and breathing techniques to promote mental and physical well-being.

The word of Yoga appears in Rig Veda. Actually, Yoga comes from the Sanskrit word”Yuj” which means ‘ union ‘ and ‘to joint’ .

Indian monks spread their knowledge of Yoga in the West during the late 1890s. While Modern Yoga teaching became widely popular in Western countries by the 1970s.

Yoga, an ancient practice and meditation has become popular in today’s busy society.

Yoga develops inner awareness. It helps develop breath, and strength of mind and body.

Yoga offers physical and mental health benefits to all ages. People may feel increased mental and physical energy, a boost in alertness and enthusiasm.

Numerous studies show that Yoga’s benefit in arthritis, osteopenia, balance issues , oncology, chronic pain and women’s health.

There are several types of Yoga and many disciplines within the practice. Regular Yoga practice can promote endurance, strength, calmness, flexibility and well-being.

Many basic postures feel very familiar. Our bodies bend and fold naturally into poses.

There are 1) Mountain pose

2) Raised arm pose

3) Standing forward bend( uttanasana)

4) Garland pose

5) Lunge

6) Plank

7) Staff pose ( Dandasana)

8) Seated forward bend

9) Head to knee pose( Jenu sirsasana)

10) Happy baby( Amanda balasana)

There are six branches of Yoga. Each branch represents a different focus and set of characteristics.

The six branches are:

1) Hatha yoga

2) Raja yoga

3) Karma yoga

4) Bhakti Yoga

5) Jnana Yoga

6) Tantra Yoga


The word ‘ chakras’ meaning spinning wheel.

Yoga maintains that Chakras are the Centre points of energy, thoughts, feelings and the physical body.

Chakras determine how people experience reality through emotional reactions, desires, levels of confidence or fear and even physical symptoms and effects.

There are seven Chakras

1) Sahasrara

2) Ajna

3) Vishuddha

4) Anahata

5) Muladhara

6) Manupura

7) Svadishsthana

Modern Yoga focuses on exercise, strength, agility and breathing. It can help boost physical and mental well-being.

There are many types of Yoga. A person should choose a type of Yoga based on their goals and fitness level.


1) Ashtanga Yoga

2) Bikram Yoga

3) Hatha Yoga

4) Iyengar Yoga

5) Kripalu Yoga

6) Kundalini Yoga

7) Power Yoga

8) Sivananda

9) Viniyoga

10) Yin Yoga

11) Prenatal Yoga

12) Restorative Yoga

Benefits of Yoga

1) Increased flexibility

2) Improved awareness of breath

3) Increased muscle strength and tone

4) Improved posture

5) Weight Loss

6) Better sleep

7) Reduced stress

8) Improved cardio and circulatory health

9) Improved athletic performance

10) Protection from injury

Each class of poses and each individual pose brings its own unique benefits to the body and the mind.

So, start your day with yoga practice daily.

Dr. S.k.jha

A mental disorder: side effects of untreated Depression

Everyone has a chapter

They don’t read out loud

Here , I am talking about untreated depression. Just as physical health is important of all, so, mental health is also important. Millions of people around the world suffer from various types of mental illness and mental health problems. Such as anxiety, depression, sadness, obsessive-compulsive disorder, addiction to drugs and alcohol, personality disorder etc.

Mental illness and psychological disorders have good treatment options with medication, Psychotherapy or other treatments.

Now, I am coming to the point about the side effects of untreated depression.

Understand depression is a serious problem. It increases the chance of risky behaviour such as alcohol or drug addiction.

Clinical depression which is also known as”Major depression ” is an illness that involves the body, mind and thought. It affects the whole behaviour of the person as to how to eat, talk and feel about himself/ herself.

How does untreated clinical depression affect physical health?

A lot of researches and evidence show that people with major depression who are recovery from such as strokes or coronary artery disease or heart attacks have a more difficult time making health care choices.

In major depression cases, sleep will be disturbed. They suffering from insomnia. So, lack of sleep can cause some of the symptoms such as – extremely tiredness, loss of energy, difficulty in making decisions and concentration, So, treating depression help the person get control over all of these symptoms and complications.

What are the common signs of Insomnia with untreated depression?

Common signs are:

1) inability and difficulty in concentrating

2) sleep decrease

3) tiredness

4) trouble falling sleep

5) overthinking

6) day time fatigue

What are the signs of alcohol and drug abuse with untreated depression?

People usually take alcohol and drugs to come out of depression, which is more common among teenagers, young people as well as middle age group. It is very very important to encourage these people to get help because they are more likely to attempt suicide.

Signs of alcohol and drugs abuse are:

1) inability to maintain a personal relationship

2) hiding their feelings

3) self-pity

4) tremors

5) memory loss

So, those who suffer from depression and taking drugs or alcohol may need very specialised treatment. Usually, men who have treated for depression may exhibit more anger, frustration and violent behaviour than women.

So, depression can affect people in their work-life, family life and social life. So, living with a depressed person is very difficult and stressful for the family members, friends and society.

Depression carries a higher risk of suicidal tendencies. Anybody who expresses suicidal thoughts or intentions should be taken very seriously.

Common signs of suicide are:

1) talking, writing, thinking about killing or hurting oneself.

2) having a death wish

3) losing interest in things are used to care about

4) increasing in drinking or using drugs

5) writing a suicidal note

So, depression affects more than 24-25 million people each year, including a large portion of the working population. People with untreated depression can usually get to work, but once, there, they may be irritable, fatigued and have difficulty in concentration, it is difficult to work well for them.

More than 80% of people with clinical depression can be successfully treated with early recognition, intervention and support.

Most people do best with depression treatment using Psychotherapy, medication or a combination of both.

So, it is my personal advice that if you or your family members are getting depressed or any problems, consult the doctor for early treatment.

I hope, all of you know that why depression treatment is necessary for a depressed person and to take care of him/ her.

Dr S.k.jha

Accelerated ageing syndrome: what is it and why we should know about it

Body organs

Before discussing the topic, first, we have to know that what is chronological age and Biological age.

Chronological age is the number of years a person has been alive, while biological age refers to how old a person seems.

Biological age also referred to as physiological age, takes many lifestyle factors into a consideration including diet, exercise and sleeping habits and so on.

Ageing is a normal physiological process that our body goes through as the years pass by. The problem comes when this process is accelerated and changes start taking place faster and hence we age faster. Chronological age is our age in years as per the birth rate. Physiological age is our age according to the body’s functional activity. More than physiological age as compared to chronological age, the worst is the condition of our body.

The accelerated age syndrome suggests the number of units in year excess/ less than chronological age.

The following factors are correlated with chronological age to arrive at the physiological or body age.

1) Respiratory problems

2) Insufficient lung capacity

3) Poor cardiac status

4) High blood pressure

5) Diabetes

6) Cholesterol

7) Poor cancer risk status

8) Insufficient activity levels

9) Stress level

10) Body fat ratio

11) Alcohol status

12) Smoking

13) Medication

14) Exercise impairment


Positive factors are such as good respiratory status, low cardiac risk, no medical contraindications, high activity, good fitness levels and stress levels etc. Thus, chronological age plus or minus the above factors equals physiological age. So we must know how to manage and improve all negative factors to accumulate a large number of positive factors.

Factors which increase 1 year each is:

1) Respiratory ailments

2) Have/ had cardiac problems

3) Elevated/ low blood pressure

4) Insufficient lung capacity

5) High body fat

High body fat

6) Sedentary/ no exercise

7) Smoking


8) Elevated/ low sugar levels

9) Drug/ medication dependent

10) Insufficient spinal flexibility

11) Poor in alcohol

12) Stress

Factors that decrease 1 unit year each is:

1) Good BP without medication

2) Good blood sugar levels without medication

3) Good blood lipid levels without medication

4) Good body weight

5) Exercise and Yoga daily


6) Good lung capacity

Lung capacity with Yoga

7) Good spinal flexibility

8) No Psychosomatic stress

9) No eye/ ear problem

Each factor increasing as well as decreasing age is given weightage of 1 unit year.

Thus, Physiological age or accelerated age will not be less than Chronological age if exiting Chronological age is below 21 years of age. For others, minimal Physiological age is set at 21 years.

Now, I hope all of you will like it.

Dr S.k.jha

Morning walk: A good habit for health


Actually, there is a lot of thoughts coming to mind. First of all, everyone wants to live a healthy life and keep fits. There are various methods for keeping the body in a good shape and fit.

Someone goes to Gym, someone does Yoga and somebody prefer to do light and heavyweight exercise.

Here, I am talking about morning walk, which is good for all ages group of people. All of us, know that as the age of people increases, the body of them are not able to do the heavy work as people go to Gym, lifting dumbbells etc.

So, walking is the most important and essential exercise for all ages of the group to keep the body healthy and fit.

Morning walk

Around 30 minutes every day can increase cardiovascular fitness, strengthen bones, reduce excess fat and boost muscle power. It also can help in reducing the risk of developing conditions such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis etc.

So, a daily brisk walk can help us a healthier life.

Walk to be healthy, walk to be happy

A lot of researchers, scientist and doctors also suggest that people who exercise daily in their 50 plus or 60 plus are 40% less likely to die over the next eight years than their non-walking counterparts.

So, walking is a great way to maintain overall health. Actually, walking does not require a lot of equipment as found in Gym. Walking is a lower impact exercise and can be done for longer periods of time.

Walking on ground

In every walk with nature, one receives far more than he seeks.

Walking can do improve memory and prevent the deterioration of brain tissue as we age.

Morning walk-in garden

Benefits of walking

1) It improves circulation. It brings lower blood pressure and strengthen the heart.

2) Lose Weight

3) Lighten the mood

4) Improve sleep

5) Enjoy a longer life

6) Strength the muscles and bones

7) Improve the breathing

8) Slow down mental decline

9) Lower Alzheimer’s risk

10) Boost mood

11) Reduce fatigue

12) Sleep better at night

It is my advice that makes it part of the routine. So, if you want to stay well, walk for 30-45 minutes nearly daily every day.

Waking up early in the morning is good. Having a walk is better.

Walking and running is a good habit for maintaining health and fitness. Walking does not require a lot of equipment and tools. So, walk without worrying about the risks associated with some more vigorous form of exercise.

Walking is the best medicine. Why walking is so good for your health?

Walking not only strengthen the muscles, stamina and improve blood circulation also, but it also helps to relax and alleviate stress. It also improves our mood.

An early morning walk is a blessing for the whole day

So, start walking and be happy and fit.

Create healthy habits, not restrictions

Dr S. K.jha

Walking is beneficial for learning and thinking.

Rajgir: A beautiful journey

No one in this world, who does not like travelling and exploring the new place. Yes, all of us want to travel and like it. Travelling is fun, exploring new culture and sightseeing and taking experience. It changes people physically and mentally.

Travelling reduces stress, making them energetic and giving them a rich experience in life.

During the journey and meet new people, learn a new language is awesome. Travelling improves our personality, understanding and knowing other cultures.

Remember, The world is a book and those who don’t travel read only one chapter.

During travelling, eating local food in a new place is an entirely new experience.

Now, I am telling you about a new and adventure as well as a holy place that is Rajgir.

Rajgir is a historical city in the state of Bihar, near the Nalanda District. It is surrounded by hills and forests. It is also known as a holy place in the world.

The city is surrounded by seven hills:

1) Vaibhara

2) Ratna

3) Sona

4) Udaya

5) Salix

6) Chhatha

7) Vipula

Rajgir due to its pleasant climate has emerged as a healthy and winter resort. There is a warm water pond also.

Travelling to Rajgir make me realise a new way of living in life. Rajgir has a whole plethora of places that would keep entangled in their beauty, history, culture and tradition.

Rajgir is also deeply associated with Lord Buddha and Buddhism. Lord Buddha had spent many years in Rajgir during the reign of King Bimbisara.

Rajgir is greener and has a more pleasant climate. The name Rajgir means”House of the King”. Rajgir pilgrimage is a very important Buddhist site since Lord Buddha spent 12 years over here and also preached two sermons.

Let’s see what we could find the beautiful places in Rajgir for sightseeing.

1) Buddha circuit

2) Vishwa Shanti stupa

What can you say about travelling where you have to practically claw yourself away from starting point? I am here to tell you about the secret heart of Bihar, a holy place and greeny area.

3) Rajgir hot springs

4) Griddhakuta park

5) Swarna Bhandar

6) Ashoka stupa peak

7) Pandu pokhar

8) Ghora katara lake

) Rajgir rope way

10) Japanese stupa

11) Glass bridge

So, there are so many beautiful places to visit and you can enjoy your trip with your family.

Jobs fill your pocket, Adventure fill your soul.

The benefits of of travelling to a new place is that it forces us to face the unknown and think differently.

From a hectic schedule, people want to relax. For them, travelling is a good choice. As you travel, you realise that the world is a much better place than what we can see on TV or reading a book.

Fill your life with experience, not things. Have stories to tell, not stuff to show.

So travel does not make you feel as bad for spending money.

Dr.S. k.jha

Covid 19 ( coronavirus) : an impact on human life

This covid19 ( coronavirus) is an infectious disease.

First, this covid- 19 is originated in December 2019, Wuhan ( China). Slowly, this virus is spreading and affecting people’s health. When people are affected by this deadly virus and losing their life, then WHO announced about this virus and declared as a pandemic. This Covid-19 is considered as the most crucial global health problems and the greatest challenges for the humankind and for the World and nations.

This pandemic has rapidly spread around the world and affecting the enormous health, economic, environmental and social challenges to the entire human population as well as for the government to win over these pandemic cases.

Almost all the nations in the world are struggling to slow down the transmission of the disease by proper guidelines issued by WHO and Scientists.

The Covid-19 has affected in human life day by day and slow down the global economy. This pandemic has affected lakhs of people. Due to this pandemic, millions of people are at risk of falling into extreme poverty, small businessmen face an extended threat. Most of the people have lost their jobs. Many are unable to feed themselves and their families. With low and irregular income and a lack of social support, many of them spurred to continue working, often in an unsafe condition, they are exposing themselves and their families to additional risks.

This pandemic is affecting different people in different ways. This Covid-19 pandemic led to a dramatic loss of human life worldwide and presents an unprecedented challenge to public health and the world to work. The economic and social disruption caused by this pandemic is devastating. Millions of people are dying.

The huge social and economic uncertainty associated with Covid-19 may be causing people to feel hopeless. This Covid-19 affects people’s health and develop mild to moderate illness and recover from serious conditions and hospitalisation.

Nearly half of the world’s population are struggling and losing their jobs for surviving their family.

Most common symptoms


Dry cough



Less common symptoms

Aches and pain

Sore throat,


Loss of taste or smell

Sometimes difficulty in breathing

Recovery time

According to available data and researches, the medium time from onset to clinical recovery for mild to moderate cases is approximately two to three weeks and is four to six weeks for patients with severe or critical diseases.

So, taking extensive precautions as regularly washing of hands with soaps and a sanitizer, wearing of double masks, social distancing and so on.

Many countries had lockdown the movement of people and enforcing strict quarantine to control the spread of this havoc of the high communicable disease.

This covid-19 has affected our day to day life, business, disrupting the world trade and movements.

The various industries and sectors are affected by this deadly virus. Disrupt the supply of products, slowing the manufacturing of essential goods, avoiding National and international travelling, closing the temples, schools and colleges, and disruption of religious, cultural and festive events.

Fears of spreading the disease among the population, closure of the parks, hotels and restaurants. Many students are facing stress due to the closure of the schools and colleges and postponed of their examinations.

In these pandemic conditions, health care professionals face of difficulties in maintaining the quality of health care these days.

Patients with other diseases and health problems are getting neglected in pandemic conditions.

Doctors are over stress, with challenges in the diagnosis, quarantine and treatment of suspected or confirmed cases.

Now, it is the time for global solidarity and support especially with the most vulnerable in our societies, particularly in the emerging and developing world.

So, we have to need long-term sustainable strategies to address the challenge facing health and all business sectors.

This is indeed an unpredictable time for all of us, as to how long we will suffer and how much finance and other things.

Most people are suffering at the moment and worrying about the future.

Let us hope that we will win over it.

Next time , I will discuss about the new variant of the virus, who is more dangerous than now.

With hope, all of us will safe.