Types of Depression

Depression is a medical condition that affects anyone, no matter their age, gender or circumstances. It affects the mood and ability to function. Women may experience depression more often than men.

Depression is common all over the world. Without treatment, depression can get worse and last longer. In severe cases, it can lead to self-harm or death.

Usually, people feel sad or depressed once in a while, but when they are sad most of the time and it affects their daily life, may suffer from clinical depression.

There are different types of depression:

1) Major depression( clinically known as clinical depression) – it is characterised by a combination of symptoms that interfere with a person’s ability to work, sleep, eat and enjoy once pleasurable activities.

Sometimes, they may feel sad, lonely or hopeless for a few days but major depression- lasts longer and is disabling. It can prevent functionality normally. The depressed mood or loss of interest will remain daily for at least two-three weeks.

2) Chronic depression or Dysthymia

It is characterised by a long-term ( two years or more) depressed mood. It is less severe than major depression and typically does not disable the person.

3) Atypical depression- the key symptoms are a) overeating

b) oversleeping

c) fatigue

d) extreme sensitivity to rejection

e) moods that worsen or improve indirectly in response to events.

3) Bipolar Depression– it is a complex mood disorder that alternates between periods of clinical depression and times of extreme elation or mania.

There are two subtypes:

1) Bipolar 1 disorder – in this case, the patient has a history of at least one manic episode with or without major depressive episodes.

2) Bipolar 2- patients have a history of at least one episode of major depression and at least one hypomanic( mildly elated) episode.

4) Seasonal depression often called seasonal affective disorder – it is a depression that occurs each year at the same time.It starts usually in the winter and ends in spring or early summer. It is a rare form of SAD known as “summer depression” begins in late spring or early summer and ends in fall.

5) Psychotic depression– delusional thoughts or other symptoms of psychosis accompany the symptoms of depression. Patients with psychotic depression experience hallucinations and delusions.

6) Persistent depressive disorder – if people have depression for more than 2 years or longer, it is called a persistent depressive disorder. These are some symptoms – a) sleeping too much or too little

b) changes in appetite

c) lack of energy

d) low self-esteem

e) lack of concentration

f) feeling hopeless

7) Postpartum depression – as many as 70% of new moms get the ” baby blue ” but about one in 10 moms develop a more serious condition called postpartum depression.

8) Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder( PMOD) – women with PMOD have depression and other symptoms at the start of their period.

Symptoms are- mood swings, irritability, anxiety, trouble concentrating, fatigue etc.

9) Situational depression- people may have a depressed mood when they are having trouble managing stressful events in their life such as the loss of a family member, a divorce or losing a job.

So, these are some types of depression.

I hope, all of you will take care of your health.

Dr S.k.jha