Seasonal affecting disorder : A mental health problem

By Dr S. K. jha

Seasonal affecting disorder is a psychological disorder in which depression occurs during the same time every year.

Many people enjoy the winter season.They travel to hill station for watching snowfall and enjoy with family and friends.

But do you know that some people feeling sadness or depression in cold , which is also known as “winter Blue”.

Actually,’winter Blue ‘ only comes during October month to April month.The shorter days of winter and the lack of sunlight can cause the body to produce too much melatonin anot enough serotonin,a neurotransmitter that helps in regulating the mood.

Researchers say that seasonal affecting disorder is a type of mood disorder that coincides with the changes in season.The most common form of SAD is depression starting when the season changes from fall to winter, often called Winter Depression.

People affected by this disorder will experience some or all other classic symptoms of depression which can be debilitating.

Causes

It is very very unclear what causes affects the SAD, though some researchers suggest people who experience seasonal depression may have trouble regulating serotonin,a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood and is affected by exposure to sunlight.

When melatonin and serotonin levels are out of balance,it can be harder for people to adjust to seasonal changes in day length.Vitamin D , which promotes serotonin activity and is produced when skin is exposed to sunlight, also may play a vital role.

It is psychological mood disorder that is characterized by lethargy and depression dependent upon the season.The disorder is more common among people who experience a longer winter and less hours of sunlight than people closure to the equator.

This disorder is four times more common among females than males. It is usually develops around the age of 20 to 30 years old and also shows evidence of significant familial predisposition to developing the disorder.

Brain activity of SAD patients vary from healthy individuals.

Symptoms

1) felling of sadness

2) hopelessness, anxiety or irritability

3) loss of interest

4) social withdrawal

5) fatigue

6) food cravings and weight gain

7) trouble thinking

8) extreme difficulty in waking up in the morning

9) Depressed mood

10) Change in appetite

11) feeling of suicidal thoughts

Unlike other types of depression,if left untreated of SAD ,then seasonal affecting disorder usually improves when spring arrives.

Symptoms tend to come back and then improve at the same things every year.

Treatment

The most common treatment for SAD is phototherapy.

Medications are also used as treatment for seasonal affecting disorder. This treatment are usually used if light therapy does not work.Antidepreesants are effective at treating SAD. Selective serotonin inhibitors are also effective.

Simple lifestyle changes may be an easy way to mitigate the depressive symptoms associate with seasonal affecting disorder.

a) the walk outside around the ground for one hour a day.

b) add more lamps and brighten lightly at home and work.

c) avoid using sunglasses or contact lenses that are coated to shield UV light radiation because the interferes with light transmission to the pineal gland.

These simple lifestyle changes could be an effective treatment for those experiencing milder symptoms and may reduce symptoms of Seasonal affecting disorder.

So,be careful and always take the task easily,not in anxiety.

Lifestyle: Everyone wants a comfortable Life

Everyone wants to lead a comfortable and luxurious life. For this, they work hard and neglect their health. Our lifestyle not only influence our health and well-being but also the personality of our life. Our lifestyle affects someway to society also.

Sometimes excessive noise, too much furniture, equipment, poor lighting arrangement and ventilation, too much cold and heat, fast food habits, diet and depressed look, overwork may adversely affect our work-life and family life.

Furniture can be rearranged, noise can be controlled, sufficient light can be set and the place can be cheered up with flowers, pictures and plants and keeping it nice and fast food habits can be controlled.

Similarly, our family life also plays a role in keeping and maintaining good health and well-being. Keeping a good relationship with children and other members of the family, practising and satisfying family life, feeling and getting love, spending time with family can solve many problems in daily life and reduce the stress in life.

Except it, proper communication is the key to maintain balance in life. Identification of the problems followed by taking initiative and discussing the problems with family members and other play a vital role.

Science and technology have brought us leisure which needs are the effort of planning for proper use. Mostly we are not aware of it and as such don’t plan for it and fail to enjoy it fully.

So, it is necessary to rethink to priorities of our activities and may need to move a variety and activities in our leisure time, to increase our friend circle, do more exercise and originate a new interest.

Everybody’s self-esteem and outlook influence our lifestyle. So, we need to develop a positive outlook and attitude towards leisure to develop more benefits from physical activities so that we may have a healthy, balanced lifestyle and a sense of well-being.

A healthy and balanced life is based on our thinking, on good points and so we should start to improve our health and family life as well as do for society.

Here, I am just narrating a story:

Two friends whose name was Sunil and Ajay had a lot in common — they both are in the twenties, work on night shift, had junk food habits, smoke and drink frequently and barely ever exercise. But the similarities do not end there. Both of them aged 22 and 25 respectively — had acute heart attacks. It is so shocking because this acute heart attack affects people above 50 years.

What we more worrying was that they had no previous history of heart disease or the usual risk factors like diabetes and obesity. So, it was a result of the unhealthy lifestyle they had been leading for years.

So, my dear friend…now the choice is yours. Judge yourself and live a healthy life.

Dr S.k.jha

Covid19: Will India will face the third wave?

I think all of you remember that the first wave of Covid-19 which originated from China had come to India and the first case had to detect in Kerala. The first wave had devastated the lives of people, therefore it had spread in India in full swing and all over the world.

After a lot of sterns action taken by the Government, lockdown had done and after that, the number of cases came down.

But, again the second wave of Covid-19 came and in March 2021, which was much lethal than the first wave. By, late April, India led the world in new and active cases.

In the second wave, the infrastructure of the health system had faced many problems such as a shortage of vaccines, hospital beds, oxygen cylinders and other essential medicine in most parts of the country.

The second wave placed a major strain on the health care system. But, now the second wave started to decline, by great efforts by Government and all frontline workers.

Now, there is a big question…Are we ready for the third wave?

It is not clear that the third wave will come or not. But, we have to prepare for the third wave and that ” if we take strong measures and precautions, we can control the third wave and save the people’s lives. Although, it depends on how well we are prepared and follow the instructions which are implemented at the local level, States, cities and districts.

Remember, the lockdown left a million of people unemployed , migrant workers are more suffered due to the closing of factories and workplace. Many migrant workers were left not a livelihood. During the lockdown period, the economic conditions has worsed. Since the beginning of the pandemic in India, poverty has increased and livelihoods have been affected.

Over 70% of India’s population live in rural areas. The increase in Covid cases was largely attributed to the movement of Covid infected migrant workers from Urban areas back to their native villages.

According to scientists, Researchers the Covid-19 third wave is likely to start in September – October. The Government has managed the second wave of the pandemic very well, so as a result number of cases have come down significantly.

The virus has been changing its mutations. So, if the people become carefree as they did earlier, the new strain of the virus can certainly strike again.

When the peak of second wave is declining and we suddenly get into the same behaviour as not using mask, gathering, meeting with people and attending in cultural programs as we did earlier after the first wave, then the new strain of the virus can come back again in a certain way.

If people need to ensure intense discipline in the coming days, week, then certainly we can handle the third wave properly without much damage.

It is my thought that the third wave of Covid- 19 could be more severe than the second wave. However, the Government has started vaccination and improvement of health infrastructure.

According to researchers, the average duration of the third wave for developed countries was 98 days as against 108 days in the second wave.

If the country and people are better prepared for the third wave “the decline in serious cases will lead to fewer deaths. ( as the patients require oxygen bed, intensive care unit and all the requirements. If, we built a better health infrastructure and more vaccinations as well as follow the guidelines as issued by the Government and WHO, then certainly the numbers of deaths in the third wave could significantly reduce as compared to the second and first wave.

Reachers and scientists have been warning of a possible third wave of Covid -19 infections, But, the timing of the third wave could not be predicted. Covid-19 has continued relentlessly for the last one and a half years. The National curve rate has declined now, still, we have to take extra precautions. With the lessons learnt in a very painful manner, we should have prepared for the third wave. Because A far number of people have been infected during the second wave than the first wave and a lot of new cases had come as white fungus, black fungus and yellow fungus found in Covid – 19 patients.

Witnessing a large number of cases and an increase in the number of deaths during the second wave, many scientists are predicting that the third wave will be more lethal than the second wave in the country, mostly children and teenagers should be taken precautions.

The different States of the country have also experienced multiple waves of Coronavirus since the pandemic started. As we expected that the second wave is declining now but after five o sis months the third wave might come but, it is not sure that when it will come.

The second wave of the Covid 19 pandemic in India is likely to be declined by July this year while the third wave is expected to hit the country in about six to eight months.

Just we got the news that more than 8000 children catching the coronavirus in the month of May in Maharashtra ‘ Ambednagar, so, the state has started taking necessary steps to minimise the impact of a possible third wave of Covid- 19 that may affect children more. During the second wave, there was a shortage of beds and oxygen. So, we need to avoid that during the third wave and hence need to fully prepare ourselves.

As we know that with more mutations getting reported in coronavirus, scientists have not sure about that when the third wave will come and have to control on it.

It is possible in my view that if we take proper precautions and follow the instructions which are issued by Government and WHO, we can control it and save our lives and others.

So, It is my personal advice that takes precautions and stay safe.

I hope all of you understanding and think about it.

Earlier, I had to warn about the third wave, now it came in the new form as omicron.

What are modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors?

Here, I am giving some light on the modifiable and non-modifiable diseases, which are harmful to our health.

Coronary heart disease is the major killer in the world today. These killer risk factors can be controlled if we are aware of the risk factors of CHD. The factors which can change are modifiable and those that can’t are non-modifiable.

Non- modifiable risk factors

1) Increasing age– Incidence of CHD increases with age, majority of patients being in the 50 plus.

2) Sex– Men have a greater risk of CHD than women and they have attacks earlier in life.

3) Hereditary — Children of parents with CHD are more likely to develop it themselves. The lifestyle of the family, presence of other risk factors like obesity, hypertension, and diabetes in the family increase the risk.

Modifiable risk factors

1) Smoking — about 30% of the smoking-related deaths are due to CHD and smoking is responsible for about 20% of all death from CHD. Smokers who have a heart attack are more likely to die. Apart from the smokers, the people around the smoker( passive smokers) are also at the increase risk.

Smoker

2) Hypertension — The risk of CHD increases continuously with increasing blood pressure. Hypertension damage the endothelial lining of the arteries making them more susceptible to atherosclerosis and vasospasm.

Blood Pressure

3) High cholesterol levels — the risk of CHD rises as blood cholesterol levels increase. High blood cholesterol levels also increase the incidence of death due to CHD. The source of cholesterol can be exogenous( from the diet) or endogenous( produced in the body mainly by the liver). Today, people are eating an increased amount of non-vegetarian foods or junk foods and contributing to exogenous source of cholesterol.

Hear rate chart

4) Obesity– people who have excess body fat are more likely to develop CHD even if they have no other risk factors. Obesity is directly linked with CHD because it influences blood pressure, blood cholesterol and triglycerides and makes diabetes more likely to develop. Central obesity which is associated with increased abdominal fats has a greater adverse effect on associated risk factors and actual risk of CHD.

Obesity

So, there is a strong positive relationship between the degree of obesity and the presence of hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyperinsulinemia and low level of HDL – cholesterol.

5) Physical Activity — Physically inactive people have a higher tendency to develop obesity, diabetes, low blood viscosity and low HDL cholesterol and all are at an increased risk of developing CHD.

Exercise

People who exercise regularly have a greater cardiorespiratory reserve. Regular exercise is an excellent stress reliever.

6) Diabetes– Diabetes is a strong risk factor in women. Both IDDM and NIDDM are associated with a markedly increased risk of CHD. Diabetes increases triglycerides, reduce HDL cholesterol, damage the endothelium and promote smooth muscle proliferation in the arteries and increase transport of cholesterol into smooth muscle cells.

Diabetes checking

7) Stress— In daily life, we are under great stress these days. People are facing problems even to get their basic needs. The cost of living is increasing and people find it difficult to make their ends meet. The families are breaking and the responsibilities are not being shared. People under stress tend to overeat, start smoking or some more than they otherwise would. Stress can increase blood pressure, heart rate and adverse effects on coagulation and fibrinolysis.

Stress

A negative mind never gives you a positive life.

8) Oral contraceptive pills – there is evidence to suggest that the pill damages the arteries and increase the incidence of CHD, especially when taken 5 years or more. Risk is greater in women above 35 years old and in the presence of other risk factors.

Oral pills 💊

So, hope now you will take care of yourself, your families and friends.

Dr S.k.jha

Now I hope you will enjoy your life.

The correlation between stress and diseases

Everyone feeling stress in their life in different ways. So, here I am trying to tell about the correlation between stress and diseases, how people will be suffering by stress in life.

Life is too short, to stress yourself with people who don’t even deserve to be an issue in your life.

Stress is actually a normal part of life. We face much stress in life in different ways. But, too much stress can seriously interfere with our jobs, family life and health.

Not only me, everyone expresses stress from time to time. In today’s life, we have a lot of responsibilities at home and at work. If we can not keep the stress under control, it can lead to serious health issues such as high blood pressure, heart disease and diabetes and others.

To understand, the correlation between stress and disease, it is important to know the four general reactions to stress.

The reactions are depicted as:

1) Stress — normal alert followed by an action of defence.

2) Psychotic– The alarm may be misinterpreted or even ignored.

3) Neurotic– alert or anxiety is so great that the defence become ineffective.

4) Psychosomatic– defends by mind fails, alert transmitted to the body system.

Stressful

Prolonged alertness and tension can produce psychological disorders, involving specific body organs ranging from Minor ailments like asthma, arthritis, eczema, constipation, palpitation and disturbed sleep. But, prolonged stress can increase our susceptibility to major stress disorders like Hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes or cancer which are life-threatening by lowering our resistance and immune system.

The common stress-related diseases are:–

1) Cardiovascular

2) Hypertension.. Uncontrolled blood pressure can strain the heart and contribute to the hardening of blood vessels.

B.P

3) Ischemic heart disease — this can prevent angina or heart attack. It indicates inadequate blood supply to the heart because of the narrowing of arteries. Stress is a major contributor to the development of atherosclerosis, increased stickiness of blood cells, spasm of the coronary arteries which led to ischemia.

4) Palpitation– It is the result of increased rate and force of heart contraction.

5) Migraine and headache — stress can lead to contraction of the muscles in the scalp, neck, forehead and cause tension headache. A migraine headache is a throbbing pain and is often accompanied by nausea or vomiting.

Headache

6) Chronic Fatigue — A constant feeling of tiredness is the commonest symptoms of stress. Fatigue can develop due to stress whether physical, mental or emotional, which drains us of energy.

7) Ulcer– ulcer can cause aggravating peptic ulcer disease. Stress leads to increased secretion of acid and thus causes damage to the inner lining of the stomach leading to ulceration.

Peptic ulcer problem

8) Diabetes mellitus– Though, stress may not directly cause diabetes .it can certainly trigger latent diabetes into a full-fledged one or can aggravate an already present diabetes.

So, except for all the diseases, some are feeling backache, irritable bowel syndrome, asthma and the common cold and cough.

Stress can be a major causal factor in physiological problems like depression, phobia, anxiety and other mental illness.

Now, it is understood that some degree of stress is required for our functioning. But, prolonged, pervasive and high level of stress can ruin our life – both physically and mentally. Thus, it is important to recognise It in the early stage and intervene to prevent the development of serious health hazards.

So, stop stressing. Take a deep breath. Everything will be okay. You can do this.

Dr S.k.jha

Now , I hope you all will your life stress-free.