Depression: What is it and how to come over it?

Depression is a mood disorder where a person’s emotional state is abnormally low or sad and the person can not independently raise his or her mood.

Depression illness is going to be a hidden epidemic around the world. Research shows that the majority of the people who had committed suicide suffer from depressive illness.

Loss of quality work and absenteeism is the highest due to depression than any other illness. Depression destroys the working quality and capacity of people.90% of depressive patients virtually don’t get any treatment.

Now in the current situation, where an economic slowdown, most people lost their jobs, and many suffering from extreme psychological trauma. Apart from this, there is war, violence, social injustice and natural calamities. As a result, thousands of people are a victim of depression. There are an increasing number of suicide and depression among people.

Depression is like all other physical illnesses and is treatable. Awareness about depression is very much needed.

The common symptoms of depressive illness are divided into two groups, physical, related to the body and psychological, related to the mental and emotional state of a person.

Out of the following symptoms, if someone is having the majority of them for more than two weeks, he or she may be suffering from depression.

1) Depressive mood – loss of pleasure in life and unable to enjoy usual activities.

2) Loss of love and affection even towards own children and spouse

3) loss of appetite and loss of weight

4) loneliness, restlessness, crying or tearfulness, feeling sad and miserable

5) loss of energy and feeling tired or exhausted

6) disturbed sleep

7) withdrawal from family and friends

8) diminished sexual desire and activity

9) feeling of hopelessness, helplessness and worthlessness

10) difficulty in concentration and in making decisions.

11) loss of interest in meeting people or watching TV or Movie

12) bitter or sour seasoning dryness of mouth, constipation, heartburn, indigestion and flatulence

13) Aches, pain and burning sensation in body

14) suicidal thoughts or attempts

Depression in children

Depression in children is very real but sometimes illusive illness. The symptoms may be of different types.

1) persistent sad or irritable mood

2) loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. the outburst of shouting.

3) fearful and phobic mood. Depressed and dejected

4) loss of appetite, sleep and weight

5) tendency to unnecessary lying, and withdrawal from everybody. lack in concentration

6) run away from home or desire to do so

7) inattentive in studies and bad performance in the examination and feeling worthless

8) negative thoughts

9) feel unloved, pessimistic or even hopeless about the future

10) talk about death and threaten to commit suicide

Depression in old age

Apart from the usual symptoms of depression, certain symptoms are characteristically present in old age depression.

1) Intense anxiety regarding normal physiological functions like heartbeats, sweating and bowel movements which are called hypochondriasis.

2) restlessness and agitation all over the body. Tendency to hit others for minor reasons.

3) Doubt over neighbours, relatives and family members.

4) forgetfulness is sometimes predominantly present in old age depression, which is called pseudodementia.

Old-age depression is left unrecognised but if detected can be treated effectively in most cases.

Treatment of depressive illness:

All the medicine which are used for the treatment of depression in the world is available everywhere. Treatment does not always require expensive investigations like MRI, CT scan or numerous blood examinations.

People of any age may be affected by depression.

Whatever medicine will be prescribed for depression, it will take two to three weeks to work effectively. Regular intake of medicines in appropriate doses ensures improvement in 100% of cases.

WHO mentioned that heart diseases, metabolic disorders, high blood sugar, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and coronary artery diseases will increase substantially due to depressive illness.

Due to global warming minimum variation of the World’s temperature makes people more vulnerable to mental illness.

According to WHO, 5 to 6 thousand people commit suicide every day in the world. out of them, nearly 90% suffer from depression and most of them expressed their desire to die earlier to their close people in different ways.

Thinks to do

Learn to say no. Don’t be scared without reason. Know yourself.

Love your work and working environment. Make your hobby or interest. Spend time with children and family members.

Keep your personality intact. Keep no complex. Love everybody.

Do regular exercise and meditation. Have six to seven hours of sleep. Eat a healthy balanced diet.

Meditation

Avoid any addiction. Do not run after unrealistic goals. Do not sit at home alone.

Seek out people who understand your feelings.

Live life in the best way. Try to be positive in your thinking.

Take your medications correctly.

So, live life fully and be positive.

Dr S.k.jha

Clinical Depression

Every test in our life makes us bitter or better, every problem comes to break us or make us.

The choice is ours whether we become a victim or victor.

Everyone in life can feel sad or happy at times. But, depression is a chronic feeling of sadness, emptiness or inability to feel pleasure that may appear to happen with no clear reasons.

Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide.

Depression is a mood disorder that causes persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness and loss of joy in life. It is different from the mood fluctuations that people regularly experience as a part of life.

Depression can take on many forms and may be categorized in several different ways. Some people only have a few symptoms, while others have many.

If depression exists for the long term then, it has a major impact on a person’s quality of life.

Most people go through periods of feeling sadness but when they are depressed may feel a persistently low mood for weeks or months rather than just a few days.

Depression affects people in different ways and can cause a lot of various symptoms.

They range from lasting feelings of unhappiness to losing interest in the things they used to enjoy and feeling very sad. Many people with depression also have symptoms of anxiety.

There can be physical symptoms too, such as the feeling of tiredness, loneliness, sleeping badly, loss of appetite and feeling of pain in some parts of the body.

Most people experience feelings of stress, anxiety or low mood during difficult times.

Signs and symptoms of clinical depression

1) feeling of loneliness, sadness or hopelessness

2) loss of interest or pleasure in all normal activities such as hobbies or sports

3) Angry outbursts, irritability or frustration

4) sleeping too much or sleeping disturbance

5) reduced appetite or increased craving for food and weight gain

6) tiredness and lack of energy, so small work takes extra effort

7) anxiety, agitation or restlessness

8) feeling of hopelessness or guilty

9) lack of concentration, trouble thinking confused, and difficult to make decisions

10) slowed thinking or negative thoughts

11) frequent or recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts

12) unexplained physical problems such as back pain, stomach pain or headache

Clinical depression can affect people of any age including children.

However, clinical depression symptoms even if severe, usually improve with psychological counselling, antidepressant medications or a combination of both.

Treatment for clinical depression can involve a combination of lifestyle changes, medicine and counselling.

For moderate to severe depression, a combination of counselling such as cognitive behaviour therapy and antidepressants is often prescribed for improvement.

Many people with depression benefit by making lifestyle changes such as doing exercise, not taking alcohol, not smoking and eating healthy foods.

So, I think if we are doing this, we don’t get depressed in life.

Life is all about ups and downs, good times and bad times, we have to find the strength to move on and believe that the next chapter of our life will be amazing.

Dr S.k.jha

A small story- Dream big: Do not lose hope:

A small child who comes from a very poor family. His parents were living in a small house. His father was a daily wage worker and his mother was working in some houses for feeding their child and living in poor conditions. They had no financial support and bank balance. Sometimes, they sleep without having meals. In the winter and rainy seasons, they faced a lot of problems. So, one day their child who was big among them, decided to go out for searching of a good job and support his family.

He was looking for a job for a long time, but he couldn’t find a job in his city. so, he decided to try his luck in another city. He caught the train the very next day and left for another city for looking a job.

His mother gave it by placing a few pieces of bread in a tiffin. His family was so poor that vegetables were not made in his house. In such a situation, only his mother had given him bread. When he was halfway done, he felt hungry. He took out the tiffin and started eating bread. The way he was eating bread, the people sitting around him were watching him. He would first break the bread, then twist something in the tiffin and put the bread in his mouth.

It was as if he was eating vegetables along with the bread. People were looking at him in amusement. Why he was doing this, they were unable to understand.

A person asked him, brother, you have only bread, so why you are rolling it in tiffin and putting it in your mouth?

The boy replied yes, I have only bread and by rotating the bread in the empty tiffin, I am thinking that I am also eating vegetables along with the bread. The person asked whether it tastes like vegetables, and the boy said that if I am eating bread and vegetables thinking, then I am also getting the taste of vegetables.

Think big

When the people sitting around him listened, a person said that if he had to think, then why thought vegetables, would have thought of mutton or chicken curry. In this way, he would be able to taste that mutton or chicken curry also.

Think big only then success will be big. If the dream of the person big , then only the success will be big.

Dream

If you want to do something big in the life, then a person should keep his thinking big. If the dreams of the person are big, then only the success will be big. For this one has to think big.

If you can believe it, you can achieve it.

Dr S.k.jha

The Parent’s few steps to guide the child

There are a lot of problems to guide the children healthily so that can become good people. Here are some competencies that predict good parenting outcomes.

It is some effort, so how well they predict a strong parent-child bond and children ‘s happiness, health and success.

1) Love and affection – if the parent support and accept the child and are physically affectionate and spend quality one-on-one time together.

2) Relationship skills – if the parent maintains a healthy relationship with a spouse, significant other or co-parent and model effective relationship skills with other people.

3) Stress management – Parents take a step to reduce stress for themselves and their families and children, practice relaxation techniques and promote the interpretation of events.

4) Education and learning – Parents promote and model learning and provide educational opportunities for their children.

5) Autonomy and Independence – Parents treat their children with respect and encourage them to become self-sufficient.

6) Health – Parents model a healthy lifestyle and good habits such as regular exercise and proper nutrition for their children.

7) Life skills – Parents provide for their children to have a steady income and plan for the future.

8) Behaviour management – Parents make extensive use of positive reinforcement and punish only when other methods of managing behaviour have failed.

9) Religion- Parents support spiritual or religious development and participate in spiritual or religious activities.

10) Safety – Parents take precautions to protect their children and maintain awareness of the child’s activities and friends.

Thus, this way we can guide our children and help them in life.

Dr S.k.jha

Stroke

stroke is a cerebrovascular disease. It affects the blood vessels that feed the brain system. A stroke occurs due to a decrease or blockage of blood supply. Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the world.

A stroke is a serious life-threatening medical condition that happens when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off.

A stroke is a medical emergency and urgent treatment is essential.

Do you ever sit and wonder what you do if something happened to your family members? Something sudden and life-threatening?

I am a bit sure that most of us have causally thought about it.

So, before explaining about stroke, I am anxious about those people who work hard to achieve a luxurious life but at what cost? One more thing, I want to clarify that those people who have high blood pressure, have more chances of stroke. High blood pressure is one of the most risk factor.

I am warning all of you that a stroke can happen to anyone, at any time and age and it can happen suddenly — out of nowhere.

A stroke is a sudden death of a portion of the brain cells due to a lack of oxygen. A stroke occurs when blood flows to the brain is impaired resulting in abnormal brain function. It is one of the leading killers worldwide.

A stroke is caused by artery blockage or ruptures that pause the blood flowing to the brain. This can leave that part of the brain damaged and the affected people may lose control of a function corresponding to that part of the brain.

Types

1) Ischemic stroke – this is the most common type of stroke. A blood clot prevents blood and oxygen from reaching an area of the brain.

2) Hemorrhagic stroke – this occurs when a blood vessel ruptures. These are usually the result of an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformations ( AVMS).

3) Transient ischemic attack(TIA) – this occurs when blood flow to a brain part of the brain is inadequate for a brief period. Some people call this a mini-stroke.

Risk factors/ causes

1) Diabetes

2) Atherosclerosis

3) Smoking

4) High cholesterol

5) High alcohol intake

6) Heredity

7) Heart Disease

8) High blood pressure

9) Trauma

10) Family diseases

11) Obesity

12) Use illicit drugs

Often, a stroke can leave one with selective, partial or full paralysis which may be reversible or irreversible.

Signs and symptoms

1) sudden severe headache

2) blurred vision/ loss of vision

3) dizziness

4) problems in speech and perception

5) loss of balance/ Trouble walking

6) sudden confusion

7) sudden weakness or numbness of the arm, leg or face on one side of the body

8) fatigue

9) hiccups

10) inability to breathe/ tremor

11) facial paralysis

12) sudden loss of balance or coordination

Routine tests in stroke patients

a) full blood test

b) ESR

c) serological test for syphillis

d) blood glucose

e) blood urea

f) protein electrolytes

g) chest x- ray

h) ECG

I) CT scan and MRI

Additional tests in younger patients

1) anti-nuclear factors

2) antibodies to double-stranded DNA

3) anticardiolipin antibodies

4) Lipid profile

Management

1) careful nursing

2) care of airways

3) fluid balance

4) physiotherapy

5) speech and occupational therapy

Specific management

1) if blood pressure rises- take suitable drugs

2) anticoagulants- in case of blockage of an artery

3) vasodilating agents – sometimes needed in some conditions

4) oedema reducing agents – sometimes needed

5) surgery

Treatment

Treatment depends on the type of stroke, including which part of the brain was affected and what caused it.

Strokes are usually treated with medication. This medicine is used to prevent and dissolved blood clots, reduce blood pressure and reduce cholesterol levels.

In some cases, surgery may also be required to remove blood clots. Surgery may also be required to treat brain swelling and reduce the risk of further bleeding if this was the case of stroke.

People who survive a stroke are often left with long-term problems caused by injury to their brain.

Some people will continue to need some form of care or help with their daily activities.

Prevention

Stroke can be fatal.

The best way to prevent a stroke is to address the underlying causes.

1) eating a healthy diet

2) maintaining a moderate weight

3) exercise regularly

4) avoiding alcohol

5) not smoking

Stoke can lead to long-term health problems.

The best medication for stroke depends on the origin of a person’s causes, their circumstances and the other drugs they are taking.

How to avoid a stroke

1) check-up regularly

2)do a check-up to find out if any arterial fibrillation is present which can cause the formation of blood clots that may lead to a stroke.

3) quit smoking

4) avoid alcohol intake

5) reduce high cholesterol levels

6) control diabetes

7) regular walking/ exercise

8) if any blood circulation problems that could increase the risk of stroke, consult the doctor

9) take low salt diet

80-85% of strokes are due to cerebral infarction.15-20% are caused by haemorrhage. The most common vascular disorder is atherosclerosis affecting intracranial and extracranial arteries.

So, my dear friends – it is my advice that

Stress less, laugh more

Spend quality time with family members, friends and spouse.

Be happy, and take care of yourself – both mentally and physically.

Dr S.k.jha

Depression: What are the physical symptoms of depression?

Depression nowadays is common among people. It is a common mental health condition that can cause both physical and psychological symptoms. The physical symptoms include fatigue, sleeping more or less than usual and appetite changes.

These symptoms may occur as a result of changes in brain activity, hormone levels or neurotransmitter levels.

There are some physical symptoms of depression:

1) Chest pain– it can be a sign of heart, lung or stomach problems. sometimes, depression can also raise the risk of heart disease. People who have had heart attacks previously are more likely to be depressed.

2) sleep problems – Depression can not only affect the body but also it affects the mind. Trouble sleeping is common in people who are depressed or stressed.

3) Fatigue and exhaustion- if anyone feels so tired that they don’t have energy tasks- even when they sleep or rest a lot- it may be a sign that they are depressed. Depression and fatigue together tend to make both conditions seem worse.

4) Digestive problems – our brain and digestive systems are strongly connected, which is why many of us get stomach pain or nausea when we are stressed or worried.

5) Aching muscles and joints – when we live with continuous pain, it can raise the risk of depression.

Depression may also lead to pain because the two conditions share chemical messengers in the brain. People who are depressed are three times as likely to get regular pain.

6) Headache – Research shows that people with major depression are three times more likely to have migraines and are five times more likely to get depressed.

7) Agitated and restless- sleep problems or other depression symptoms can make agitated and restless. Men are more likely than women to be irritable when they are depressed.

8) Back Pain – when people are hurt regularly, it may contribute to depression. And people who are depressed may be four times more likely to get intense, disabling neck or back pain.

9) changes in appetite – some people feel less hungry when they get depressed. Others can not stop eating and feel hungry often.

Depression has been linked to eating disorders like bulimia, anaemia or binge eating.

10) sexual problems – if anyone is depressed, might lose interest in sex.people will not interested to keep relation in a depressed mood.

11) Exercise – Research suggests that if people do exercise regularly, it releases chemicals in the brain that make them feel good, improve their mood and reduce pain sensitivity.

If someone is depressed, it can be hard to get the energy to do exercise. But, try to remember that can ease fatigue and feel good.

So, depression is a mood disorder that affects how someone thinks, feels and behaves. It may cause them to feel sad, worthless or numb for a prolonged period.

Dr S.k.jha

Types of Depression

Depression is a medical condition that affects anyone, no matter their age, gender or circumstances. It affects the mood and ability to function. Women may experience depression more often than men.

Depression is common all over the world. Without treatment, depression can get worse and last longer. In severe cases, it can lead to self-harm or death.

Usually, people feel sad or depressed once in a while, but when they are sad most of the time and it affects their daily life, may suffer from clinical depression.

There are different types of depression:

1) Major depression( clinically known as clinical depression) – it is characterised by a combination of symptoms that interfere with a person’s ability to work, sleep, eat and enjoy once pleasurable activities.

Sometimes, they may feel sad, lonely or hopeless for a few days but major depression- lasts longer and is disabling. It can prevent functionality normally. The depressed mood or loss of interest will remain daily for at least two-three weeks.

2) Chronic depression or Dysthymia

It is characterised by a long-term ( two years or more) depressed mood. It is less severe than major depression and typically does not disable the person.

3) Atypical depression- the key symptoms are a) overeating

b) oversleeping

c) fatigue

d) extreme sensitivity to rejection

e) moods that worsen or improve indirectly in response to events.

3) Bipolar Depression– it is a complex mood disorder that alternates between periods of clinical depression and times of extreme elation or mania.

There are two subtypes:

1) Bipolar 1 disorder – in this case, the patient has a history of at least one manic episode with or without major depressive episodes.

2) Bipolar 2- patients have a history of at least one episode of major depression and at least one hypomanic( mildly elated) episode.

4) Seasonal depression often called seasonal affective disorder – it is a depression that occurs each year at the same time.It starts usually in the winter and ends in spring or early summer. It is a rare form of SAD known as “summer depression” begins in late spring or early summer and ends in fall.

5) Psychotic depression– delusional thoughts or other symptoms of psychosis accompany the symptoms of depression. Patients with psychotic depression experience hallucinations and delusions.

6) Persistent depressive disorder – if people have depression for more than 2 years or longer, it is called a persistent depressive disorder. These are some symptoms – a) sleeping too much or too little

b) changes in appetite

c) lack of energy

d) low self-esteem

e) lack of concentration

f) feeling hopeless

7) Postpartum depression – as many as 70% of new moms get the ” baby blue ” but about one in 10 moms develop a more serious condition called postpartum depression.

8) Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder( PMOD) – women with PMOD have depression and other symptoms at the start of their period.

Symptoms are- mood swings, irritability, anxiety, trouble concentrating, fatigue etc.

9) Situational depression- people may have a depressed mood when they are having trouble managing stressful events in their life such as the loss of a family member, a divorce or losing a job.

So, these are some types of depression.

I hope, all of you will take care of your health.

Dr S.k.jha

Depression Triggers as we age: what are the factors?

Each year more than 45 million people in the world suffer from depression and anxiety disorder. Fear, anxiety, and stress are a normal part of life, even adaptive in many conditions.

There are some factors/ triggers which can affect people in some way.

1) Midlife can make miserable – according to research, midlife depression affects the globe. In the world, it peaks at around age 40 for women and 50 plus for men and usually starts to lift in the 50.

2) Depression trigger: overload of work – women suffer from the demands of children, ageing parents, marriage and jobs. They are feeling sad, worthless and guilty.

3) Changes in sex drive– as men age increase, their bodies produce less of the important sex hormone testosterone. Low testosterone levels can cause depression as well as erectile dysfunction, trouble getting an erection – and a decreased interest in sex. They lead to depression in people both men and women.

4) Thyroid disorders – in the case of overactive thyroid, it could be accompanied by heart problems, tremors or fatigue. An underactive thyroid can cause constipation or fatigue.

5) Achy joints – living with chronic pain such as arthritis or gout, and osteoarthritis increase the chance of having depression.

6) Perimenopause or menopause – Hormone fluctuations hit flushes and life changes related to perimenopause and menopause can make the mood swing. Mood swings or depression may worsen during this transitional period.

7) Low vitamin B12 – low vitamin B12 level may be caused by depression or lethargy.

8) Type 2 diabetes – Depression is a common and dangerous complication of many chronic conditions, including diabetes.

9) Drinking habits – about 1 in 5 older people, and young people who drink heavily have major depression. Some people start drinking more because of stressful events such as retirement or an overload of work in the office and home.

10) Poor sleep – Insomnia and other sleep disruptions which are common as we age, are closely related to depression. Obstructive sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome also have been linked to depression.

11) Retirement – if anyone were forced to retire because of poor health or other reasons – might very well be depressed. Factors such as financial insecurity or lack of social support can also make retirement or depressing conditions.

12) Heart problems – it is common to feel depressed after a diagnosis of heart disease or having a heart attack or cardiac surgery. But, many people with heart disease go on to experience severe, long-term depression.

13) Loneliness – social support can help prevent or ease depression. Those people who stayed connected with friends living elsewhere had less depression.

Loneliness

So, maintain keep in touch with close friends.

14) Health conditions – any chronic or serious condition such as Parkinson’s disease or a stroke can lead to depression. A stroke can also affect the areas of the brain that control mood.

15) Grief– It is normal to grieve after losing a spouse or other loved one. Memory problems, confusion and social withdrawal can be symptoms of depression.

16) Laughter– A good laugh can relax muscles, reduce stress and relieve anxiety. It can change the mood and feel relaxed.

So, take care of your health because depression is a medical illness- a health problem related to changes in the brain.

Dr S.k.jha

Inflammatory bowel disease

Many people are suffering from inflammatory diseases of bowel, but ignorance of knowledge and not thinking about their health will get the problem later.

People with IBD ( Inflammatory bowel disease) like chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis have chronic inflammation.

Actually, IBD is a group of disorders that cause chronic inflammation( pain and swelling) in the intestine.IBD includes chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Both types affect the digestive system. Proper treatment can help manage this lifelong condition.

Symptoms

a) stomach cramps

b) Diarrhoea

c) gas

d) bloating

d) loss of appetite

e) mucus or blood in stool

f) upset stomach

Rarely, IBD may also cause-

1) fatigue

2) fever

3) itchy, red, painful eye

4) joint pain

5) nausea and vomiting

6) skin rashes and sores( ulcer)

7) vision problems

Nearly, 4-5 million Americans and other people from different countries have some form of IBD. This condition affects all ages and genders. IBD most commonly occur between the age of 15 and 30.

Types

chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the main types of IBD.

1) Chron’s disease – it causes pain and swelling in the digestive tract. It can affect any part of the mouth to the anus. It most commonly affects the small intestine and upper part of the large intestine.

2) Ulcerative colitis – it causes swelling and sores(ulcers) in the large intestine( colon and rectum).

3) Microscopic colitis– it causes intestinal inflammation that is only detectable with a microscope.

Causes

Researchers and scientists are still trying to determine the reason about IBD.

Three factors appear to play a role –

1) Genetics – as many as 1 in 4 people with IBD have a family history of the disease.

2) Immune system response – the immune system typically fights off infection. In people with IBD, the immune system mistakes foods for Foreign substances. It releases antibodies ( proteins) to fight off this threat, causing the IBD system.

3) Environmental triggers – people with a family history of IBD may develop the disease after exposure to an environmental trigger.

These triggers include smoking, stress, medication use and depression.

Diagnosis test

1) blood examination

2) colonoscopy – to examine the large and small intestine

3) EUS( endoscopic ultrasound) – to check the digestive system for swelling and pain

4) Flexible sigmoidoscopy – to examine the inside of the rectum

5) Imaging scans such as CT scans or MRI – to check for signs of information or abscesses.

6) Upper endoscopy – to examine the digestive tract from the mouth to the start of the small intestine.

7) Capsule endoscopy- using a small camera device that you swallow. The camera capture images as it travels through the digestive tract.

Complications

People with IBD have a higher risk of developing colon ( colorectal) cancer.

Others are

a) anal fistula

b) anaemia

c) anal stenosis

d) kidney stones

e) liver diseases such as cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis

f) osteoporosis

g) perforated bowel( hole or tear in the large intestine)

h) toxic megacolon ( severe intestine swelling)

Management and treatment

IBD treatment varies depending on the particular type and symptoms, medications can help control inflammation.

1) Aminosalicylates

2) Corticosteroids such as prednisone

Others are- anti-diarrheal medicine, NSAIDs, vitamins and supplements like probiotics

Surgical treatment for chron’s disease

As many as 8 in 12 people with a chron’s disease eventually need surgery, where medications no longer period symptom relief.

In the case of ulcerative colitis – after 30+ years of living with ulcerative colitis, about 1 in 3 people need surgery.

Prevention

1) eat a smaller meal every two to four hours

2) quit smoking

3) find a healthy way to manage stress such as medication, movement like going for a walk or listening to music

4) get plenty of sleep and stay physically active

5) reduce foods that irritate the intestines such as spicy, greasy or made with milk if they are not digested.

6) cut off caffeine, carbonated and alcoholic beverages. Drink more water to prevent dehydration.

So, take care and keep healthy.

Dr S.k.jha

Teenage and smoking

It is well known that smoking is harmful to health but still many teens smoke. Nearly all long-term smokers started smoking before the age of 18.

Teen smoking is more common among teens whose parents smoke.

Most teens believe that occasionally smoking would not cause harm to them and not become addicted and think that they can stop smoking at any time they want.

Smoking during childhood and adolescence causes significant health problems among young people.

Every day, almost 3500 children under 18 years of age try their first cigarette and more than 500 of them will become addicted to this habit and become regular daily smokers.

People who start smoking at an early age are more likely to develop a severe addiction to nicotine than those who start at a late age.

Due to smoking at an early age , young people under the age of 18 eventually die prematurely from a smoking-related disease. Around 4-5 million youth die due to smoking per year.

Smoking is found to stunt the physical growth or mental growth of child smokers. As a report by Researchers, teenagers from lower social, educational and economic levels started smoking earlier and continue to be regular smokers in a large proportion as compared to teenagers from families with higher socioeconomic and educational standards. Boys start smoking earlier than girls.

Smoking

Various reasons for smoking in teenagers:-

1) Imitation – There are Some who like to imitate others, especially the influential or popular immediate senior around them. They imitate dresses, mannerisms and habits of smoking too.

2) As an act of defiance- some teenagers think that they are committing an act of courage.

3) Attraction to forbidden action – since society, in general, does not approve of smoking at a young age, some teenagers find psychological pleasure in committing the forbidden act of smoking.

4) The show-off- some teenagers start smoking just to show off sophistication.

5) To confirm the general practice – a large number of teenagers start smoking just to belong to a group of friends or associates who are already smokers.

6) Following the habit of parents – off springs of parents who smoke, invariably become smokers.

7) Suggestions from seniors- Teenagers who have already acquired the habit of smoking induce others around them to start smoking and due to ignorance juniors start smoking.

8) To appear and feel like a grown-up– Many teenagers smoke to show that they are capable of taking independent decisions.

9) To relieve boredom – Many college students continue to smoke to relieve boredom or to pass time when there is nothing to do. They also smoke while daydreaming or when lost in thoughts.

10) To feel refreshed and relaxed- students feel that during tension or anxiety, smoking helps them to relax and to feel refreshed when tired.

Reasons that lead to smoking among teenagers

1) Suggestions from seniors

2) To appear and feel as a grown-up

3) to feel refreshed and relaxed

4) imitation

5) following the habits of parents

6) to relieve boredom

So, among teenagers of the urban area as well as rural areas commonest cause is following the habits of their smoking parents.

So, I hope we have to spread the harmful effects of smoking on their health and request for them to quit smoking.

Dr S.k.jha