Ram Setu: what is the real truth behind it?

In India, Ramayana is considered the greatest epic in Hinduism. There is a history about the Ram Setu bridge or Adams bridge existence. In Ramayana, This Ram Setu bridge was constructed by monkeys sena which was under the guidance of Neel and Nala ( one of the monkey’s chiefs). This bridge was built across the ocean with the advice of the ocean’s God. The heroes with a large army of monkeys cross the ocean and reach Lanka.

Ram Setu starts from Dhanushkodi tips of India’s Pambar Island and ends at Sri Lanka’s Mannar Island.

The current day Sri Lanka is the place where many people believe the antagonist of Lord Rama– Ravan had his golden kingdom there. As the history written by Valmiki in Ramayan that Ravan had kidnapped the wife of Ram named Sita for which Lord Rama had to battle with Ravana and his Sena and after victory over him, rescue Sita.

There are a lot of arguments about the “Ram Setu” bridge. It is very difficult to prove that this bridge is a man-made one whereas others say that it is a natural bridge. So, it is very difficult to find Archaeologists and Geologists to prove and getting evidence that can prove the historicity of the Ram Setu bridge which was built by his monkey’s sena.

First, it was mentioned in Ramayana, written by Valmiki. But, it is true or not Scientists still trying to find out, because till now it was not cleared by any evidence regarding of this Ram Setu.

There are several views and opinions on the history and legacy of Ram Setu.

The battle between science and spirituality is running for over a decade. Science relies on logic, facts and proof whereas spirituality is largely related to belief.

Many Geologists say Ram Setu is built by a natural process but failed to provide enough proof. Apart from Ramayana that are several facts that say, Ram Setu is a Man-made structure.

So, the lack of comprehensive studies has led to many uncertainties regarding the built of Ram Setu.

The problem arises when The archaeological survey of India(ASI) has submitted its report that there was no historical or scientific evidence about the existence of Ram Setu as it was mentioned in Ramayana.

When this report came, it became controversial among people. But, when the NASA shuttle sends across images about two decades ago of a 50 km long chain of sand backs on which Stone rested across the Palk Strait in the Indian ocean. NASA also clarified that the image didn’t prove the existence of a man-made bridge, referred to as a Ram Setu.

To ascertain the legitimacy of the findings, the researchers used techniques to date the sand and stone. Scientists reveal that the rocks are 7000 years old and sandbars are some 4000 years old.

Most people even with a scientific background ignored the fact that this is not how science works.

As I have mentioned earlier that science and spirituality have different opinions about Ram Setu.

So, what is the real story?

According to NASA, the US agency has clearly said that the pictures taken by Astronauts don’t prove the existence or otherwise of a man-made bridge as written in Ramayana. But, after many Researchers, Archaeologists and Geologists said that the sandbars that form this 50 km long bridge-like structure could be natural formations, but the problem is here that the survey says that the stones that sit on those sandbags have certainly not been naturally placed by the vagaries of time. Because the sandbags are some 4000 years old but the stones atop them are 7000 years old.

It is now an illusion among Researchers and people that Ram Setu which is made by Lord Rama for saving the Goddess Sita.

The truth is that in Ram Setu case, cultural, spiritual and religious faith also involved.

This famous bridge that was built remains a mystery. The discovery of this bridge is not only important for Archaeologists but it gives the world to know Indian history linked to Indian Mythology.

Dr S.k.jha


Covid19: Will India will face the third wave?

I think all of you remember that the first wave of Covid-19 which originated from China had come to India and the first case had to detect in Kerala. The first wave had devastated the lives of people, therefore it had spread in India in full swing and all over the world.

After a lot of sterns action taken by the Government, lockdown had done and after that, the number of cases came down.

But, again the second wave of Covid-19 came and in March 2021, which was much lethal than the first wave. By, late April, India led the world in new and active cases.

In the second wave, the infrastructure of the health system had faced many problems such as a shortage of vaccines, hospital beds, oxygen cylinders and other essential medicine in most parts of the country.

The second wave placed a major strain on the health care system. But, now the second wave started to decline, by great efforts by Government and all frontline workers.

Now, there is a big question…Are we ready for the third wave?

It is not clear that the third wave will come or not. But, we have to prepare for the third wave and that ” if we take strong measures and precautions, we can control the third wave and save the people’s lives. Although, it depends on how well we are prepared and follow the instructions which are implemented at the local level, States, cities and districts.

Remember, the lockdown left a million of people unemployed , migrant workers are more suffered due to the closing of factories and workplace. Many migrant workers were left not a livelihood. During the lockdown period, the economic conditions has worsed. Since the beginning of the pandemic in India, poverty has increased and livelihoods have been affected.

Over 70% of India’s population live in rural areas. The increase in Covid cases was largely attributed to the movement of Covid infected migrant workers from Urban areas back to their native villages.

According to scientists, Researchers the Covid-19 third wave is likely to start in September – October. The Government has managed the second wave of the pandemic very well, so as a result number of cases have come down significantly.

The virus has been changing its mutations. So, if the people become carefree as they did earlier, the new strain of the virus can certainly strike again.

When the peak of second wave is declining and we suddenly get into the same behaviour as not using mask, gathering, meeting with people and attending in cultural programs as we did earlier after the first wave, then the new strain of the virus can come back again in a certain way.

If people need to ensure intense discipline in the coming days, week, then certainly we can handle the third wave properly without much damage.

It is my thought that the third wave of Covid- 19 could be more severe than the second wave. However, the Government has started vaccination and improvement of health infrastructure.

According to researchers, the average duration of the third wave for developed countries was 98 days as against 108 days in the second wave.

If the country and people are better prepared for the third wave “the decline in serious cases will lead to fewer deaths. ( as the patients require oxygen bed, intensive care unit and all the requirements. If, we built a better health infrastructure and more vaccinations as well as follow the guidelines as issued by the Government and WHO, then certainly the numbers of deaths in the third wave could significantly reduce as compared to the second and first wave.

Reachers and scientists have been warning of a possible third wave of Covid -19 infections, But, the timing of the third wave could not be predicted. Covid-19 has continued relentlessly for the last one and a half years. The National curve rate has declined now, still, we have to take extra precautions. With the lessons learnt in a very painful manner, we should have prepared for the third wave. Because A far number of people have been infected during the second wave than the first wave and a lot of new cases had come as white fungus, black fungus and yellow fungus found in Covid – 19 patients.

Witnessing a large number of cases and an increase in the number of deaths during the second wave, many scientists are predicting that the third wave will be more lethal than the second wave in the country, mostly children and teenagers should be taken precautions.

The different States of the country have also experienced multiple waves of Coronavirus since the pandemic started. As we expected that the second wave is declining now but after five o sis months the third wave might come but, it is not sure that when it will come.

The second wave of the Covid 19 pandemic in India is likely to be declined by July this year while the third wave is expected to hit the country in about six to eight months.

Just we got the news that more than 8000 children catching the coronavirus in the month of May in Maharashtra ‘ Ambednagar, so, the state has started taking necessary steps to minimise the impact of a possible third wave of Covid- 19 that may affect children more. During the second wave, there was a shortage of beds and oxygen. So, we need to avoid that during the third wave and hence need to fully prepare ourselves.

As we know that with more mutations getting reported in coronavirus, scientists have not sure about that when the third wave will come and have to control on it.

It is possible in my view that if we take proper precautions and follow the instructions which are issued by Government and WHO, we can control it and save our lives and others.

So, It is my personal advice that takes precautions and stay safe.

I hope all of you understanding and think about it.

Earlier, I had to warn about the third wave, now it came in the new form as omicron.

Black fungus: Is it so dangerous? What are the key factors about it?

As all of us living in a fearful situation, a lot of Covid cases are coming in a new form.

Even as the second wave of Covid-19 has ruined the lives of people in India. This is a new black fungus distinguished in people who had recovered from this deadly disease.

In the second wave of Covid-19, some unusual things are happening which were not there in the first wave such as the use of industrial oxygen. There are also variants of the Corona Virus in the second wave.

Day by day, the Black fungus( mucormycosis) cases are increasing. This Black fungus is a rare fungal infection caused by a group of moulds known as mucormycosis. These molds live throughout the environment. Black fungus mainly affects people who have health problems or those who are taking medicines that lower the body immunity and lower the body’s ability to fight germs and get sickness easily.

This type of cases has been found in China and India, particularly among patients who are suffering from diabetes, cancer or immune compromising conditions like HIV.

But, now it is reported that those people who had covid-19..especially who have health problems like diabetes, heart, cancer and kidney problems – have been found to be more susceptible to this disease.

Now, it is a big question in everyone mind that how this Black fungus enters the body?

The exact cause is unknown. But, it seems that an unhygienic way of delivering oxygen to patients or combined with an excess dose of steroids and long time given the steroids for the treatment of covid-19 patients.


1) Pain/ stiffness in the nose

2) Inflammation on cheeks

3) Swelling of eyelids

4) Pain and redness around the eyes or nose

5) Headache

6) Coughing

7) Shortness of breath

8) Chest pain and sometimes vomiting of blood in serious condition

MRI and CT scan of the nasal cavity, sinuses and brain is necessary. Another one is endoscopic evaluation of the nasal cavity can confirm fungal lesions.

All fungal and necrotic tissues should be removed from the nasal cavity.

This Black fungus has a high mortality rate. The fungal infections affected the covid-19 patients, who have weakened immune system and the underlying medical illness particularly diabetes and irrational use of steroids.

These two factors are prevalent in India, which is the main reason for the devastating second wave of corona virus.

Black fungus has emerged as a post covid complication, which has spiked in the second wave of the pandemic in India. Till now, approximately 18 States have reported Black fungus cases.

It is my personal opinion that when oxygen shortage being reported across most of India, a large amount of industrial oxygen had been delivered for medical purposes. This industrial oxygen cylinder is treated roughly and without proper upgrading and without proper hygiene. These industrial oxygen cylinders are not used for medical purposes as they have dust particles, moisture and water seepage unless without proper upgrading and upgradations.

The highest risk of catching fungal infections of any kind right now exists for those people who have a history of high blood sugar levels or uncontrolled diabetes and a weak immune system.

But, we have to remember that a battle with covid-19 can render the body very weak and fall sick especially weeks after the recovery stage if one is not too careful. Since Covid-19 can also lead to vital organ complications, there is a big risk of catching infections like Black fungus, white or yellow fungus.


1) wearing a mask is compulsory — fungal spores found in the air can easily enter the body through nose.

2) cleaning and replacement of humidifiers

3) Mask should be disinfected daily

4) sterile normal saline should be used in the humidifier and changed daily.

The Black fungus infection has been seen in cases of uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression by steroids, prolonged ICU stay and comorbidities.

Patients with Black fungus are currently treated with known Amphotericin-B injection or liposomal injection.

India is not the only country facing the crisis, even Pakistan, Russia and other country also seeing a surge in Black fungus infection.

So, be careful and follow the guidelines.


White fungus in the covid patient: is it more dangerous than black fungus

The second wave of covid 19 pandemic has been more devastating than the first wave. People are suffering rapidly in the second wave. The second wave, which is more stepper than the first wave, continues to transmit the virus among people. The second wave is spreading at a faster pace in every age group. As the second wave has not been slow down, the new type of infection found in Covid 19 as a Black fungus and now as White fungus.

Crowded in market

After a spike in black fungus cases in several states across the country, a new lethal fungus has emerged — White fungus .It is believed to be more fatal than black fungus.

As the deadly black fungus, that has come with a second wave of Covid-19 in the country, a new lethal” White fungus” has knocked the door, which has found in Patna, Bihar. At least, four patients had been diagnosed with this lethal fungal infection.

But, we should be alert that this could be many more cases of the disease so far unreported.

This white fungus can affect not only the lungs , but also other parts of the body including the skin, nails, stomach, kidney brain, mouth and private parts of the body.

A few months back , black fungus cases had come, which was more dangerous and affecting the people.

Now, there a new infection called white fungus has come and found in some affected Covid -19 patient.

These new cases of White fungus have been detected in Patna, Bihar and it seems that it is more dangerous than black fungus.

Actually, this infection can be caused due to low immunity or if people come in contact with things that contain these moulds like water etc.

So , sanitation is very very important.


Patients of white fungus show covid like symptoms, but their report might be negative, so, only this infection can be diagnosed through HRCT of the chest. Covid 19 patients are more prone to white fungus as it affects the lungs and similar symptoms develop like that of corona virus.

1) Fever

2) cough

3) Diarrhoea

4) Dark spots on lungs, reduced oxygen levels

Those who have weak immunity like diabetes, cancer patients and those patients who are taking steroids for a long period should take special care as they are more at risk.

According to experts, this new white fungus is four times more dangerous than the black fungus.

Test of covid

Treatment and prevention

Patients with white fungus are currently behaved toward with known anti-fungal medication and hope it might be helpful.

The unsanitary use of oxygen cylinders or the overuse of steroids can also heighten the risk of infection.

It is easy to prevent from white fungus infection by sanitising the oxygen or ventilator properly.

Cooperation with corona warriors

This white fungus (candida and aspergillus) reaching the lungs could pose a new challenge.

But, we can not ignore the fact that apart from fungus, many rare bacterial and other microorganisms — caused new symptoms may emerge in Covid and post- Covid patients in the coming days.

Especially, the patients who are home isolated,should do the HRCT of the chest immediately to rule out any problems.

It has been seen that the patient infected with white fungus showed covid- like symptoms but we’re tested negative. So, the expert believe on HRCT scan of the chest may be required to trace the fungal infection.

So, be careful and stay safe as well as follow the guidelines strictly.