Inflammatory bowel disease

Many people are suffering from inflammatory diseases of bowel, but ignorance of knowledge and not thinking about their health will get the problem later.

People with IBD ( Inflammatory bowel disease) like chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis have chronic inflammation.

Actually, IBD is a group of disorders that cause chronic inflammation( pain and swelling) in the intestine.IBD includes chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Both types affect the digestive system. Proper treatment can help manage this lifelong condition.

Symptoms

a) stomach cramps

b) Diarrhoea

c) gas

d) bloating

d) loss of appetite

e) mucus or blood in stool

f) upset stomach

Rarely, IBD may also cause-

1) fatigue

2) fever

3) itchy, red, painful eye

4) joint pain

5) nausea and vomiting

6) skin rashes and sores( ulcer)

7) vision problems

Nearly, 4-5 million Americans and other people from different countries have some form of IBD. This condition affects all ages and genders. IBD most commonly occur between the age of 15 and 30.

Types

chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the main types of IBD.

1) Chron’s disease – it causes pain and swelling in the digestive tract. It can affect any part of the mouth to the anus. It most commonly affects the small intestine and upper part of the large intestine.

2) Ulcerative colitis – it causes swelling and sores(ulcers) in the large intestine( colon and rectum).

3) Microscopic colitis– it causes intestinal inflammation that is only detectable with a microscope.

Causes

Researchers and scientists are still trying to determine the reason about IBD.

Three factors appear to play a role –

1) Genetics – as many as 1 in 4 people with IBD have a family history of the disease.

2) Immune system response – the immune system typically fights off infection. In people with IBD, the immune system mistakes foods for Foreign substances. It releases antibodies ( proteins) to fight off this threat, causing the IBD system.

3) Environmental triggers – people with a family history of IBD may develop the disease after exposure to an environmental trigger.

These triggers include smoking, stress, medication use and depression.

Diagnosis test

1) blood examination

2) colonoscopy – to examine the large and small intestine

3) EUS( endoscopic ultrasound) – to check the digestive system for swelling and pain

4) Flexible sigmoidoscopy – to examine the inside of the rectum

5) Imaging scans such as CT scans or MRI – to check for signs of information or abscesses.

6) Upper endoscopy – to examine the digestive tract from the mouth to the start of the small intestine.

7) Capsule endoscopy- using a small camera device that you swallow. The camera capture images as it travels through the digestive tract.

Complications

People with IBD have a higher risk of developing colon ( colorectal) cancer.

Others are

a) anal fistula

b) anaemia

c) anal stenosis

d) kidney stones

e) liver diseases such as cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis

f) osteoporosis

g) perforated bowel( hole or tear in the large intestine)

h) toxic megacolon ( severe intestine swelling)

Management and treatment

IBD treatment varies depending on the particular type and symptoms, medications can help control inflammation.

1) Aminosalicylates

2) Corticosteroids such as prednisone

Others are- anti-diarrheal medicine, NSAIDs, vitamins and supplements like probiotics

Surgical treatment for chron’s disease

As many as 8 in 12 people with a chron’s disease eventually need surgery, where medications no longer period symptom relief.

In the case of ulcerative colitis – after 30+ years of living with ulcerative colitis, about 1 in 3 people need surgery.

Prevention

1) eat a smaller meal every two to four hours

2) quit smoking

3) find a healthy way to manage stress such as medication, movement like going for a walk or listening to music

4) get plenty of sleep and stay physically active

5) reduce foods that irritate the intestines such as spicy, greasy or made with milk if they are not digested.

6) cut off caffeine, carbonated and alcoholic beverages. Drink more water to prevent dehydration.

So, take care and keep healthy.

Dr S.k.jha

Emergency Psychiatric Problems

A psychiatric emergency is a disturbance in thoughts moods and actions that cause sudden distress to the individual or sudden disability, thus requiring immediate management of such disorders.

Around 1in 5 of the world’s children and adolescents have a mental disorders.

A psychiatric emergency is a dangerous or life-threatening situation in which a patient needs immediate attention.

Types of Psychiatric Emergencies

1) A new psychiatric disorder with acute onset

2) A chronic psychiatric disorder with relapse

3) An abnormal response to a stressful situation

4) Iatrogenic emergency

a) side effects or toxicity of the psychotropic medication

b) psychiatric symptomatology as a side effect or toxicity of other medications

5) Alcohol or drug dependence

a) overdose

b) as withdrawal syndrome

c) complications

d) deliberate harm to self or others

Types of problems

1) Social problems – family separation, poverty, lack of privacy, loss of livelihood

2) Mental Health problems – depression, schizophrenia, acute stress reduction, use of alcohol and drugs, post-traumatic stress disorders

People with severe mental disorders are especially vulnerable during emergencies and need access to mental health care and other basic needs

Etiology

There are some common causes of mental illness:

a) psychiatric disorder

b) depression

c) alcoholism and drug dependence

d) schizophrenia

2) Physical factors – people with incurable or painful physical disorders like AIDS, Cancer , and Kidney failure often leads to emergency care and develop psychiatric disorders.

3) Psychosocial factors – it is a very important reason for arising psychiatric disorders such as failure in examination, marital difficulties, divorce, family disputes, failure in love etc.

Psychological factors lead to

1) stupor and catatonic syndrome

2) excited behaviour and violence

It is due to mania, depression, drug and alcohol dependence, and organic and Non-organic psychiatric disorders.

4) Other Psychiatric emergencies are:

a) severe depression

b) insomnia

c) hyperventilation syndrome

d) anorexia nervosa

e) drug or alcohol use disorder

f) psychological crisis( marital conflict, occupational and financial difficulties)

g) panic disorder

h) acute psychosis

Sadness

5)Suicide- it is the most commonest cause of death among psychiatric patients. It is a crisis that causes intense suffering and feelings of hopelessness and helplessness.

Examination

When anyone is faced with a psychiatric emergency, it is important to combine speed with obtaining a complete history/information.

1) Psychiatric history – always obtain a history from both the parents and the informants. Informants may be more knowledgeable and may provide more relevant information.

a) chief complaint

b) recent life changes

c) level of adjustment

d) past history

e) family history

f) drug and alcohol history

2) Detailed general physical and neurological examination

3) Mental status examination

People with a severe disorder die 10to 20 years earlier than the general age consideration.

Mental, Neurological and substance use disorders make up 10% of the global burden of disease and 30% of the non-fatal disease burden.

Management

1) Medication

2) Psychotherapy

3) Electroconvulsive therapy

4) Cognitive behaviour therapy

5) Find out the reason and treat accordingly

Emergency treatment should be on immediate medical care (diagnosis and treatment of the underlying psychiatric problems) and an attempt to establish a bond with the patients.

There are some tips for improving mental health:

1) Get enough sleep

2) see a therapist

3) spend time in nature

4) pursue a hobby

5) spend less time with devices, gadgets and electronics

6) connect with family and friends

7) express yourself

8) forgive yourself

9) practice deep calm breathing

10) do some exercise and yoga

Mental Illness

So, I think, all of you know enough about it and living with family and friends stress-free.

Dr S.k.jha

Yoga and Health: how to keep your body fit

Yoga word itself strikes in mind keeping fit mind and body. Yoga is a practice that connects the body, mind and breath. It uses physical postures, breathing exercises and meditation to improve overall health. Actually, Yoga was developed as a spiritual practice thousands of years ago. It has been coming from ancient times, but recently in the past few decades, it is using to reduce obesity, flexibility, hypertension and other ailments.

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Scientists and Researchers also agree on the point that yoga is beneficial for health purposes also.

Yoga is usually divided into eight rings or limbs. Which are :

1) Yama

2) Niyama

3) Asana

4) Pranayama

5) Pratyahora

6) Dharana

7) Samadhi

8) Dhayana

It is a holistic way of life leading to a state of complete physical, mental and spiritual well- being and harmony with nature.

Yoga can be used by any age group for reducing mental stress, diabetes, and hypertension as well as reducing depression and anxiety also.

The nature of Yoga is to shine the light of awareness into the darkest corners of the body.

Although, Yoga originated in India thousands of years ago. Yoga has been proved by researchers that is effective in the prevention as well as management of stress and stress-induced disorders.

It has been known that yoga is beneficial for health conditions like decreasing anxiety, stress, fear, obesity and hypertension.

1) Obesity and overweight – obesity and overweight are strong risk factors for diabetes, hypertension and ischemic heart disease. Yoga has been found to be helpful in the management of obesity. Many people are suffering from obesity due to lifestyle and junk food habits. Less physical exercise increases overweight.

2) Hypertension – Regular yoga practice for 1/2 hours per day is also found to control hypertension. Yoga together with Psychotherapy, relaxation, biofeedback and meditation has been found convincing antihypertensive effects.

3) Diabetes– In India and in the world, there are a large number of cases of diabetes. The practice of Yoga regularly can help in the control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Yoga also has a beneficial cognitive brain function.

4) Lipid profile – Elevated serum total cholesterol, LDL, and Triglyceride are risk factors for Ischemic heart disease, so Yoga is beneficial for controlling these factors.

5) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – Yoga practice improves lung function and strength of inspiratory and expiratory muscles. Yoga can improve the quality of life.

Yoga can improve overall fitness levels and improve flexibility and posture.

a) it helps in relaxation

b) it lowers blood pressure level and heart rate

c) it improves self-confidence

d) it improves coordination

e) it reduces stress

f) it improves concentration

g) it reduced anxiety, back pain and depression

h) it helps in sound sleep

I) it boosts the immune system functionally

j) it prevents irritable bowel syndrome and another digestive system

k) it gives inner strength

l) it improves flexibility, builds muscle strength, perfect posture, and prevents cartilage and joint breakdown.

m) it is also better for bone health

n) it improves balance and relaxes the system

Therefore, it is concluded that the practice of Yoga is beneficial for all the dimensions of health i.e. physical, social, mental and spiritual. There are different types of Yoga. As per the yoga instructor, we should have to practice yoga under his guidance.

But always remember: wrongly body incorrect asana and breathing incorrectly, while exercising can be harmful to health and body.

So Yoga is a light, which once lit will never dim.

So, Yoga is so beneficial for the body that not anyone can doubt on yoga.

Dr S.k.jha

Prevention of coronary artery disease by quitting smoking

All of us know that smoking is injurious to health, still, people are doing it. Smoking is the major and avoidable cause of premature death and ill-health in the world. About 30% of the smoking-related deaths are due to coronary heart disease and smoking is responsible for about 20% of all deaths from CHD.

Why is smoking risky?

Tobacco smoke is a dangerous cocktail of over 4000 thousand chemicals, 60 of which are carcinogens. Nicotine, carbon monoxide and tar are the poisons. Nicotine is a highly addictive toxic substance. Nicotine damages the heart in the following ways:

1) stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and causes the body to release more stress hormones like adrenaline, which increases the heart rate and blood pressure.

2) the heartbeat can become irregular

3) induces spasms in the coronaries, damages the endothelial lining, and promotes the formation and progression of atherosclerosis.

4) can trigger a major ischemic event

5) increases the stickiness of platelets and fibrinogen levels and promotes clot formation.

Carbon monoxide enters the bloodstream and binds to the haemoglobin reducing the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

It is important to note that apart from the smoker the people around(passive smokers) especially the family members who are exposed repeatedly to the smoke are also at great risk. Since passive smokers inhale the smoke that is not filtered the toxic effects are said to be much more in them.

Why do people start smoking

Smoking is a learned behaviour. Studies have shown that children at a young age are aware of smoking because of the publicity it receives in the various media. Smoking starts commonly in the adolescents age or young adults and can be due to:

1) peer group pressure

2) a desire to rebel- the act of defiance

3) out of curiosity and suggestibility.

Why do people continue to smoke?

Many people continue to smoke though they are aware of the health risks. The reasons are for this behaviour could be:

1) the serious ill effects are not seen immediately and smokers feel that no damage is being done to them and hence continue to smoke.

2) protection by denial — smokers falsely try to protect themselves by thinking that nothing will happen to them or feeling that they can give up anytime.

3) highly addictive nature of nicotine – the dependence can be physical/chemical/psychological/ emotional. It can be a learned behaviour becoming an automatic habit.

4) smokers feel that they are getting benefits like enjoyment, relaxation, concentration, weight control, and mood control by smoking.

5) fear of failure to quit

How do help smokers to quit?

Doctors and other health professionals have the highest credibility to persuade and help smokers to quit. It is helpful to know the target groups who can quit smoking relatively easily so that they can be identified and helped to quit.

1) adolescents and teenagers

2) pregnant women

3) people who have recently become parents or grandparents

4) adults with established smoking-related diseases

5) adults who seem to be aware of the health risks.

Health professionals must be explained that the so-called benefits of quitting smoking can be easily in a healthier way through meditation, stress management, exercise getting more involved in the family. The relaxation a cigarette gives is nothing but a dangerous addiction to nicotine. Apart from the long term health benefits( reduced risk of CHD, lung cancer and other smoking-related diseases) that quitting gives the short term benefits like the food tasting better, breathing becoming easier, getting rid of smokers’ coughs that smell will not be offensive etc. must be explained. Quitting smoking may add a few kilos of weight which can be easily controlled by diet and exercise.

Once the smokers have quit smoking there are chances that they may go into a relapse. So, here again, the health professionals and the family members have a very important role in preventing the relapse.

So, I hope we should take some steps for the benefit of people’s health.

Dr S.k.jha

Diabetes: Is it dangerous to health?

Nowadays, Diabetes is a common disorder in the world. But many people may never realize, how did they get diabetes and what will happen to them and what will they go through. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is identified by high blood sugar levels. Increased blood sugar levels damage the vital organs of the human body causing other potential health ailments.

It is the most common endocrine disorder. It is characterised by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes.

The basis of abnormalities in carbohydrates, fat and protein metabolism in diabetes is the deficient action of insulin on the target tissues. Deficient insulin action results from inadequate insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue response to insulin at one or more points in the complex pathways of hormone action.

Classification

1) Primary – a) type 1

b) type 2

2) Secondary – due to other pathology-

1) Gestational diabetes

2) Generic syndrome associated with Diabetes

3) Uncommon immune mediated

4) Genetic defects of insulin secretion

5) Endocrinopathies

6) Drug induced

7) Toxin induced

8) Genetic effects of beta- cells

9) Secondary to infection

Type 1 diabetes, the cause is an absolute deficiency of insulin secretion.

Type 2 diabetes, the cause is a combination of resistance to insulin action and an inadequate compensatory insulin secretory response.

Testing for Diabetes in presumably healthy individuals

Type 1 diabetes is usually an autoimmune disease, characterized by the presence of a variety of autoantibodies to protein episodes on the surface of or within the beta cells of the pancreas. The presence of such markers before the development of the overt disease can identify patients at risk.

It is epidemiological evidence that retinopathy begins to develop at least 7 years before the clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Because hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes causes microvascular disease and may cause contribute to macrovascular disease, the undiagnosed disease is a serious condition.

Screening for Diabetes

Urine examination – urine testing for glucose 2 hours after a meal is used in medical practice for detecting cases of diabetes.

Blood sugar testing – Blood sugar testing remains the cornerstone of the diagnosis of diabetes. Mass screening programs have used glucose measurement for fasting, postprandial or random samples. The most reliable is the combination of fasting and 2 hours post radial blood glucose testing.

Target population – screening of high-risk groups seems more appropriate. These groups are-

a) age 40 and above

b) family history of diabetes

c) person with obesity

d) women who have had a baby of more than 4.5 kg

e) women showing excessive weight gain during pregnancy

f) patients with premature atherosclerosis

Symptoms

1) extreme thirst

2) excessive urination

3) weight loss

4) stomach problem

5) foot problem

6) high blood pressure

7) low concentrations

8) sweat smell breath

9) cracked skin

10) loss of consciousness

Prevention

Primary prevention

a) population strategy – the development of prevention programs for Diabetes based on the elimination of environmental risk factors is possible. The measures comprise normal body weight through the adoption of healthy nutritional habits and regular physical exercise. The nutritional habits include an adequate protein intake, a high intake of dietary fibre and avoidance of sweet foods.

b) High-risk strategy – Nutritional education, nutritional rehabilitation and management of obesity are the hallmarks of reducing the incidence and prevalence of diabetes.

Secondary prevention

The aim of the treatment is-a) to maintain the blood glucose levels as close to normal limits as possible

b) to maintain body weight in the ideal range for the desirable BMI level

The treatment is based on

a) diet modification alone

b) dist change along with oral hypoglycemic drugs

c) diet change and insulin

Good control of diabetes prevents complications that would otherwise have taken place

Routine checks are a must for

Blood Pressure, blood sugar, urine for protein and ketones, visual acuity and weight, defective circulation in the feet, loss of sensation of the skin, estimation of Glycated Haemoglobin levels yearly etc.

Tertiary prevention

Diabetes is a major cause of deformity and disability through its communication like blindness, kidney failure, coronary thrombosis, and gangrene of the feet.

Long term complications

1) peripheral atherosclerosis – it may cause intermittent claudication, gangrene, coronary artery disease and stroke.

2) cardiomyopathy – it can cause heart failure.

3) Diabetic retinopathy

4) Renal disease – it is a major cause of death and disability.

5) peripheral sensory neuropathy causes numbness, paraesthesia, severe hypothesis, and pain that may be deep-seated and severe and it often works at night.

Dr S.k.jha

Brain damaging habits: why should we know?

There are a lot of factors that affect brain functioning.

1) No breakfast.. people who don’t take breakfast are going to have lower blood sugar levels. This leads to an insufficient supply of nutrients to the brain causing brain degeneration.

2) Overeating..It causes hardening of the brain arteries leading to a decrease in mental power.

Overeating

3) Smoking.. It causes multiple brain shrinkage and may lead to Alzheimer’s disease.

Smoking

4) High sugar consumption..Too much sugar will interrupt the absorption of proteins and nutrients causing malnutrition and may interfere with brain development.

High sugars
The damaging effects of high sugar consumption on skin

5) Air Pollution...As we know the brain is the largest oxygen consumer in our body. Inhaling polluted air decreases the supply of oxygen to the brain, bringing about a decrease in brain efficiency.

Air Pollution

6) Sleep deprivation..sleep allows our brain to rest. Long term deprivation from sleep will accelerate the death of brain cells.

7) Head covered while sleeping..sleeping with the head covered increases the concentration of carbon dioxide and decrease the concentration of oxygen that may lead to the brain-damaging effect.

8)working hard during illness..working hard or studying with sickness may lead to a decrease in the effectiveness of the brain as well as damage the brain.

9) Lacking in stimulating thoughts…Thinking is the best way to train our brain, lacking brain stimulation thoughts may cause brain shrinkage.

10) Talking rarely..Intellectual conversations will promote the efficiency of the brain.

Now, we should alert and avoid these factors.

Dr S.k.jha

Check out your brain

During our hectic Lifestyle, we need to increase our brain function. As with body fitness and emotional fitness, the brain also needs nurturing and nourishment. We often neglect to look after our brains. It might be due to a busy schedule or the demanding nature of our career.

Let’s discuss have how we can keep our minds sharp and healthy.

1) challenging your brain – it can be something as simple as taking a different route to work– it can protect our brain against memory loss later on. Some mental challenging activities can sharpen the brain and are much less likely to get Alzheimer’s disease.

a) start reading a book

b) go to a lecture or attend the seminar

c) listen to music

Researchers say that exercise they all “Neurobic” which challenge our brain to think in new ways.

Being obese in middle age makes twice as likely to have dementia later on. High blood pressure and high cholesterol raise the chances too.

Too much stress can hurt our grey matter, which is a part of the brain. The brain contains cells that store and process information. Because, as we get older, we might not remember things easily as we need to. That is a normal part of ageing. so, in this case, write things down, are the calendar and reminder functions in the phone, even for simple things. Focus on one task at a time.

2) Eating healthy foods – Many nutritious foods are good for the body and mind. A lot of fish, eggs, broccoli and turmeric can improve brain health and keep the memory sharp.

3) Sleep well– A sound sleep is necessary to recover from the stresses of our daily life. Because sound sleep improves memory, mood, energy levels and concentrations.

4) Physical exercise – Some exercises can lower blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, boost mood and increase the happy hormone levels in the brain like serotonin and endorphins.

5)Meditation – Even 10 minutes of meditation daily can help in boosting the mood and also reduce stress.

6) Stress management – if anyone becomes mastered how to manage stress then the mood becomes more stable, thoughts become clearer and the relationship improves.

Stress
Listening music

7) Brain training exercise – There are many ways to keep the mind sharp as puzzles, exercise for lifting mood, improving memory and increased concentration etc.

Games
Morning walk

8)Socialising– socialising can also feel good , lifting mood and help in improving memory and keeping the brain sharp.

Party
Fun together

9) Learning new things – learning new things like new skills, a new hobby and a new language can have significant positive effects on the brain.

10) Reading – No one can deny that reading can have a positive effect not just on life but also on the brain and body.

So, keeping the brain fit and healthy should be a top priority. Having a sharp mind will help in boosting our confidence, developing empathy, reducing the risk of dementia, improving focus and alertness.

Now, I think all of you will focus on your brain and body.

Dr S.k.jha

Blood Donation: save a life

Blood is essential to our life. Blood circulates through our body and delivers essential substances like oxygen and nutrients to the body cell. There is a substitute for blood. It can not be made or manufactured in Laboratory. Generous blood donors are the only source of blood for patients in need of a blood transfusion.

Our donation can save three lives and our country needs blood every two seconds.

Donating blood has several benefits. It reduces stress, improves emotional well-being, benefits physical health helps get rid of negative feelings.

Donating blood also lowers the risk of heart disease and prevent heart attacks. This is because it reduces the viscosity of blood. Regular blood donation can also lower the blood pressure.

Researchers note that frequent or regular blood donation significantly lower the mean total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein. Cholesterol protects against cardiovascular disease.

But remember, before donating blood, some checkup is necessary.

1) Pulse

2) Blood Pressure

3) Body temperature

4) Hemoglobin level except it some tests are also necessary —

a) hepatitis B

b) hepatitis C

c) HIV

d) Syphilis

e) side effects of donating blood

Blood donation is safe for healthy people. There is no risk of contracting the disease. New sterile equipment is used for each donor.

Some people may feel nauseous, lightheaded or dizzy after donating blood. If this happens, lie down and take some juice and rest for a few minutes.

Blood donation is a big boon for society as donated blood is used for saving needy people. It is life-saving for many people.

Give blood, save a life

Every second of every day, people around the world — of all ages and from all walks of life — need a blood transfusion to survive.

Accidental cases, traumatic injuries requiring blood transfusion. Anaemia, cancer, women with complications of pregnancy or childbirth, a blood disorder — there are several reasons, why need to get blood from others.

So, I hope all of you agree with me to help and encourage people to donate blood.

Dr S.k.jha

Cold and Health: Beware of biting cold

A fall in temperature has led to an increase in the case of heart attacks, strokes and health issues associated with high blood pressure. In cold weather, low-temperature causes narrowing of blood vessels, which can be fatal for diabetics, heart and kidney patients and those suffering from hypertension. They need to undergo a routine check-up, regular monitoring of blood pressure and avoid sudden exposure to cold.

In cold weather or low-temperature place physiological stresses on the body, so the more healthy and fit we are, the more easily our body can cope with these stresses.

One of the best ways to stay warm in a cold climate is by the use of some exercise and healthy food. As people get older, they can become less perceptive of cold temperature, another reason the elderly are more prone to becoming hypothermic, they just don’t notice their falling body temperature.

So, when we get old our body reduces the circulation to the extremities and skin surface, a process called peripheral vasoconstriction, so concentrating a greater volume of blood in the body. This increases arterial blood pressure. The body’s response is to try to reduce this pressure, the kidneys reduce the volume of circulating blood by removing water to the bladder to be lost as urine. This process is known as”cold diuresis”.

Cold weather diminishes the immune system. Cold air is a particular trigger of an asthma attack, the only way to avoid this are to avoid the cold air by staying indoors or wearing warm clothes.

A colder temperature means we burn more calories to stay warm.

Feeling cold all the time is a common symptom of several medical conditions such as:

1) Anemia

2) Hypothyroidism

3) Raynaud’s disease

4) Diabetes

5) Anorexia

6) Heart attack

A constant feeling of cold can be a sign of a more serious medical condition. So, people at risk should keep warm at all times, in the home, outside or in the workplace.

Early morning is the most hazardous time due to natural daily rhythm, so prepare for the winter commute.

During winter, the blood pressure of even a normal person rises and to high BP patients are extra vulnerable during cold waves.

People with coronary heart disease during low temperature suffer from a situation called peripheral vascular resistance due to spasm in blood vessels, which increases the load on their heart.

In cold conditions, the blood pressure of people suffering from high BP may shoot up suddenly leading to a haemorrhage or nose bleeding.

People with high BP should not remain in the sun for long as after prolonged exposure to heat if they get exposed to low temperature, their BP may shoot up. They should also restrict salt intake as cold plus salt may cause disaster for high BP patients.

If the blood pressure rises to very high levels, one may experience a headache, dizziness and shortness of breath, which may lead to a heart attack and stroke. The elderly are at high risk.

Precautions

1) Check BP regularly

2) Take medicine regularly

3) Healthy eating

4) wear warm clothes

5) stop smoking

So, we should take extra care in the winter weather.

Dr S.k.jha

Smoking and coronary artery disease/Heart

Everyone knows that smoking greatly increases the risk of cancer and heart problems. Unfortunately, too many people don’t understand just how much smoking increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

If you keep smoking, your heart problems will likely become much worse, much faster.

Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of heart problems and illness. It has a very harmful impact on the heart and blood vessels and is a major cause of coronary artery disease, stroke and cardiac arrest.

Smoking is the major and avoidable cause of premature death and ill-health in the world. About 25-30℅ of the smoking-related deaths are due to coronary heart disease and smoking is responsible for about 20℅ of all deaths from CHD.

Tobacco smoke is a dangerous cocktail of over 4000 thousand chemicals, 60 of which are carcinogens. Nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide are the main poisons. Nicotine is a highly addictive toxic substance. Nicotine damages the heart in the following ways:

1) stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and causes the body to release more stress hormones like adrenaline, which increases the heart rate and blood pressure.

2) the heartbeat can become irregular.

3) induces spasms in the coronaries, damages the endothelial lining, promoting the formation and progression of atherosclerosis.

4) can trigger a major ischemic event

5) increases the stickiness of platelets and fibrinogen levels and promotes clot formation.

Carbon monoxide enters the bloodstream binds to the haemoglobin reducing the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

Remember, smoking not only affects the person who is smoking but also affects family, friends and people who breathe second-hand smoke( passive smokers).

Many people continue to smoke though they are aware of the health risks. Smokers feel that they are getting benefits like enjoyment, relaxation, concentration, weight control and mood control by smoking.

There are some side effects of smoking on the heart and blood vessels.

1) Atherosclerosis – This is a disease in which the blood vessels become stiffer and become inelastic. Chemicals of cigarettes cause the build-up of plaque and hence lead to atherosclerosis.

2) Clots– smoking causes the blood to thicken, which increases the formation of blood clots in the arteries and veins. This causes more blockage in the vessels. So, this blockage can lead to cardiovascular disease and sudden heart attacks.

3) Enlarged heart– Actually, cigarettes contain carbon monoxide that binds the haemoglobin. As all of us know that haemoglobin is responsible for carrying oxygen.so, due to the bind of haemoglobin oxygen can not go to cells in the body, resulting in an enlarged heart.

4) Constricted vessels – Nicotine in cigarettes cause the blood vessels to constrict and become narrow. This forefront restricted blood flow to the heart and body. So, an enlarged heart and blocked blood vessels and arteries make it difficult to transport oxygen throughout the body.

Some of the cardiovascular diseases caused by smoking —

1) Heart Attack – A heart attack is a severe medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to the heart becomes completely blocked. This is due to a clot or plaque. A heart attack can be fatal and requires immediate emergency medical care.

2) Coronary artery disease – It occurs when excessive plaque builds up in the major arteries that pump blood from the heart. This plaque is caused by cholesterol, lipids and chemicals from smoking.

3) Stroke – A stroke is another severe medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to the brain becomes blocked. As a result, brain tissues are unable to receive oxygen from the blood and brain cells begin to die. Strokes can be extremely fatal and therefore require immediate emergency medical care.

So, quitting smoking is necessary to reduce the risk of heart disease.

Doctors and other health professionals have the highest credibility to persuade and help smokers to quit.

Once the smoker has quit smoking there are chances that he may go into a replacement.

Many people have some questions in mind. If smoking is so risky why has no government banned it? Is the government afraid of losing revenue that the cigarette sale generate? Whatever the amount of revenue generation, it is at the cost of people’s health.

Hope that someone understands this very quickly.

So, please quit smoking and enjoy life.

Dr S.k.jha