Arm exercise: no need of Gym and any equipments

Gym and other equipments seem to be very necessary for arm exercise and built muscles.But remember, when you do not have weights , you will be using mostly your body weight to lift and work for arm muscles.This is really a good workout for strength the muscles. If you just want to do some simple arm exercise to stay in shape than look no further.

There are some arm exercises, which can anybody can do anywhere –

1) Arm plank with arm raises – Let’s start with a simple one,For this exercise, the person will begin in a regular plank.Then, while they hold this position,they will raise one arm up in front of them and set it back down.

They can also raise it to the side if this feels more comfortable.

Alternate raising each arm about 20-25 times, this will not only feel more strength but also will be giving the abs a workout which they are holding the plank position.

2) Tricep dips- start in a reverse tabletop position.This is when you are on all focus, facing upward like you are about to do a crab walk.

Then, bend at elbows and lower yourself,so your body is about to touch the ground. Do this tricep dips about 30 – 35 times.

3) Push up to bear squat – Regular push ups are classic arm exercise that anyone can add to any workout.For this exercise,you can take the push ups to another level you add the bear squat.

For this, begin in a plank position and do a Push up. When the person who do this,come back up,bend at the knees and bring the hips back towards the feet for the bear squat.

Strengthens the legs and come back to the plank position. Do this about 20-25 times.This will help work your abs,arms and glutes. Really,it is a great workout to strengthen the multiple areas

4) Spider crawl to push ups – This is another exercise for strengthens the muscles by having a spider crawl added in exercise. Start by standing up straight with your arms overhead. Bring the arms down like going to touch the toes and begin crawling with hands on the ground forward. When you finally crawl in a plank position, finish with a push ups. When come back from the Push up,start to crawl back towards the feet. Stand up and reach the hands back overhead and repeat.

Do this about 20-25 times.

5) Shoulder push ups – Normally, the push ups work the bicep and tricep muscles. This exercise can help work the shoulder muscles that normally would need weights for but with a push ups.simply start in a plank position and instead of bending at the elbows,focus on shoulders and begin to raise and lower them

This is a slight motion that does not make a big dip like a push ups. Do this and 2030 minutes.

6) Side plank- start with propping yourself up one arm and stacking your legs to keep the balance in the side plank position.while hold this position,raise the other arm upto the sky and then bring back down.

Repeat this exercise about 30 times each side. Filling this in arms, shoulder muscles and core.

7) Shoulder touches – This is a simple exercise.It starts in a plane position while holding this, the person will alternate raising his hands to touch the opposite shoulder.

Do this for about 35 Seconds.

8) Wide- Lung to twist- it should be start in a runners or Wide- Lung. To get in this position,come to a plank and then bring one leg up next to the arm. Next, take the arm that is on the same side as the leg that is forward and stretch it up to the sky. When the person bring the arm back down,place the leg back next to the other so the person will be back in a plank position.Repeat the same steps to the other side.

Do this about 20-30 times total. Then,you will get this in your shoulders,abs and thighs.

9) Circle Push up – This is also a good exercise.Begin in a plank position,then instead of going straight down for a push up,lower to one side beginning in a clock wise motion and come all the way down in a slow circle.when the person complete the circle,he should be back up in a plank position and then he can alternate to another side in a counter clock – wise motion.

Circle exercise

Do this about 20-25 times.This really work the bicep, shoulder, muscles and abs

10) Superman arm pulses- Any exercise the person can do while laying down is a good one. This exercise starts off with laying on the stomach with the arms and legs extended. Lift both the arms and legs so they are hovering over the ground. This requires to engage the core and hold this position throughout the exercise.While holding this, Start to pulse the legs up and down at a fast pace for about 30 second.

This is a great workout to finish with because the person will feel it in multiple areas like the shoulder,glutes and abs.

So, this exercises gives the strengthens the arms muscles and feel good.

Arm exercise

Dr. S.K.jha

The concept of five minutes exercise for fitness

Total physical fitness can also be achieved by doing five minutes exercise either at home or in the office.In our day to day life,it may not be always possible to cover all the components of fitness every day i.e. suppleness, strength,stamina and speed.

At home, the five minutes exercises can be done in the morning before leaving for office or starting housework.

In the office, these exercises could be done before starting the work, during the lunch break or in the evening before leaving the office.

Five minutes exercises program at home

1) neck rotation- ten times each side –

Effect – relieves tension,relaxes and strengthens the muscles of neck and vertebrae and reduces fatty deposits under the chin.

2) Arms rotation..Ten times each way

Effects – brings about mobilty of the shoulder joints, relaxing the muscles of the shoulders ,arms ,chest and back.

3) Waist – four types of exercises are affected.

a) waist rotation- ten times each side

b) alternate toe- touching ten times each side

c) side swing- ten times each side

d) side bends- ten times each side

Effect – the effect of all those four waist exercises reduce the accumulation of fat in the waist area. It also gives suppleness to the waist and spine.

d) Back stretch toe touching – ten times

Effect – relaxes and stretches the spine,relaxes the muscles of the back , stretches the muscles of the leg and abdomen.

The above four five minutes exercises are basically warm up exercises to relax the muscles and prepare the body for more strenuous exercises to follow.

e) push ups – ten times

Effect – this exercise strengthens the entire muscles of the arm, shoulder and chest making them firm.

f) Sit- ups – ten times

g) partial Sit- ups – ten times

This exercise strengthens the entire abdominal muscles making them firm. It is also beneficial to the muscles of the back.

h) Leg exercises

Effect: strengthens the abdominal muscles and also beneficial to the muscles of legs,hip and back

I) Backward leg raises- ten times each

This exercise is specifically for ladies

Effect – tighten the muscles of the bottom and also beneficial to the back, muscles of hip and legs .

J) sideward leg raises – ten times

This exercise is also specifically for ladies

Effect – reduces the fat on hip and upper thigh areas

K) running – 100 steps

It is the most important single exercise as it is a cardio vascular exercise.

Effect – strengthens the muscles of the leg including ankle,feet and knees. Improves circulation and respiration and strengthens the muscles of the heart , reduces stress and tension.

L) squat- ten times

Effect – strengthens the muscles of the legs including thigh, ankle and calf etc

M) Deep breathing – ten times

Effect – beneficial effect on the lungs and circulation.

Five minutes exercise program at the office

These exercises can be done while commuting in a bus, train or airplane.They may be done in the office or in school or at seminar, meetings etc.

Long hours spent in the office doing a sedentary and monotonous job can be used effectively with five – minutes exercises program not only to energies the body but also as a result to improve productivity.

Five minutes group fitness program

The five minutes group fitness program is to be done every day at the beginning of duty hours either in the office or at the work site.

The benefits of this program is not only total physical fitness and increased vitality and stamina but also in the reduction of stress ,back problems and heart problems. It increases circulation and purification of blood.

The following exercises are the group exercises –

1) Neck rotation

2) Arm rotation

3) waist rotation

4) toe touching exercise

5) push- ups

6) leg raises

7) deep breathing

8) spot running

Five minutes exercises are not meant for the super – fit athelete but are suited for the normal sedentary male and female for whom exercise is not a priority. These five minutes exercises can bring freshness and maintain fitness to meet the daily needs of a body .

Dr S.k.jha

Why core muscle strength is so important?

A strong core helps keep a more upright and erect posture. The core muscles play a huge role in everyday activities like getting out of bed, walking in the market, going to the job etc. So, core muscles are the base of support for the entire body.

Core muscles are found in the obliques, abdominals, lower back and glutes. These four areas of the body are the ones that usually make the posture of a person.so, if the core muscles are physically powerful, they will maintain the balance of the body and will stabilize the system every time the person is working out and moving.

Long hours of reading, working, typing or standing at a workbench take their toll. Acutually calcium deposits in the joints, complete the process of immobilisation. Once, this calcification takes place, nothing can be done to reverse it. As an example, if a person walks in short, slow steps, then mostly we think that the person is old. because the hunched posture gives the clue.

So, as the ageing, we have to take precautions, and older people can take action before it is too late.

The best activities are regular stretching exercises that stretch the muscles and improve the flexibility of the core muscles.

The main responsibility of the core muscles is to provide enough power to the body to enable the physical activity that a person encounters.

So, many fitness workers believe that it is very important to strengthen the core muscles more than other muscles in the body. Strong core muscles can lessen a lot of health problems concerning posture.

Regular stretching exercise surrounds and supports the spine and pelvis and connects the body and lower body, effectively transferring forces from one to the other.

A strong core is very important for our posture. The ab muscles play a dominant role in the movement of every plane of motion as forward and backwards, rotational and left and right positions.

A weak core is the number one risk for potential injuries, especially lower back injuries.

So, Research shows that core strength training can help alleviate lower back pain.

Working on core strengths has numerous benefits from improved posture, balance and movement to pain management and injury prevention.

There are some major functions of the core muscles –

1) contains and protects the internal organs

2) stabilize the top part of the body over the bottom part

3) ensures greater mobility of the spine and trunk

4) control the pelvic-lumbar relationship

So, now we need to do exercise daily.

Dr S.k.jha

Jogging: Health Benefits and fitness

Jogging is a slow form of running. It means a smooth easy running movement, which involves the movement of the arms also. The entire body including the jaw, neck, shoulders and arms must remain loose and relaxed.

Effects of jogging

a) jogging the slow form of running results in an increased heartbeat and this strengthens the heart.

b) the increased heartbeat improves the circulation in the body, strengthening the arteries, and veins and creating new capillaries to reach the muscles. This reduces blood pressure and the hardening of arteries and atherosclerosis.

c) since jogging strengthens the heart, it is one of the best ways of preventing heart attacks.

d) the increased heartbeat during jogging results in increased respiration and this results in a greater intake of oxygen into the lungs.

B) advantage of jogging over other forms of exercises

a) jogging directly strengthens the muscles of the leg

b) jogging doesn’t require the booking of a swimming pool or a gymnasium in advance.

c) jogging doesn’t require any expensive equipment.

C) Requirements of jogging

a) a nice, strong, comfortable pair of shoes perfectly with a soft upper and a padded sole with Cushioning in the heels.

b) A loose salwar kameez or light and loose tracksuit is advisable for ladies.

Medical check-up before jogging

Before embarking on a jogging program, if over the age of 35, the first step is to consult a physician. This a routine medical checkup and the physician will advise jogging for its therapeutic effect on the body. This medical checkup will also isolate cases of heart problems. This is done under strict medical supervision in the presence of both doctors and the coach. It involves starting very very slowly so that the heart gets used to the exercise.

Times for jogging

Jogging can be done at any time but the best time would be early morning or late evening. Jogging should not be done soon after meals and also on empty stomach. A light stomach is best for jogging.

Period for jogging

The best way to start is by covering a period of approximately 10 to 20 minutes by jogging and walking. Instead of running a distance such as 1 or 2 kilometres, it is more convenient to run for a specified period and as fitness improves, to increase the pace of running within the allotted time and only thereafter increase the distance also. Jogging is at a pace that is slightly faster than walking. The entire process from starting jogging to running continuously for 20 minutes will take three months and it is not advisable to rush into running continuously earlier.

Jogging continuously is certainly the ultimate form of jogging fitness.

Jogging

Limitations for jogging

Where the pulse rate is going beyond 150 beats per minute, it means the runner has certainly exercised himself. For a person below 30 years old, the pulse rate can go up from 170 to 180 beats per minute. For those who are above the age of 40 years, it is not advisable, nor it is necessary to increase the heartbeats beyond 140 per minute to keep in mind the biofeedback of the human body. If the joggers feel sick, giddy or excessively fatigued, it indicates that the body has been overworked.

Benefits of jogging

1) it helps in losing weight

2) it makes feel better

3) improve lungs function

4) it increases self-esteem

5) it improves sleep better

6) no expensive equipment is needed

7) strengthen the joints and bones

8) keep mind sharp

9) cardiovascular health

10) reduces stress

11) release endorphins

12) strengthen the immune system

Running is one of the best solutions to a clan mind.

Aches and Injuries with jogging

The starting point of any new activity will result in aches and pains since the muscles involved have not been used earlier. This is a healthy pain and the best way of relieving it is, to continue jogging and exercising systematically. Other pains and injuries connected with jogging are shin splints, heel pains, Achilles tendon pain, ankle sprain, knee pain etc. The inevitable blisters can be avoided by using socks and jogging shoes with soft uppers.

Muscle injuries because of tears or strains in the muscles occur mostly in active competitors. The best remedy for this is to rest and medication.

On alternate days, jogging is advocated and since jogging is a cardiovascular exercise that strengthens the heart, lungs and muscles of the legs, some other strength-building systems for the upper body( weight training) on an alternate day are advocated. If one does not have to go to a gym or decides to jog every day, a series of push-ups and sit-ups at the end of each session take care of strengthening the muscles of the upper body. Three sets of 10 push-ups and three setups of 15 sit-ups along with 20 minutes of jogging constitute an almost perfect fitness program.

If coupled with a few loosening and stretching exercises before or after the session.

Dr S.k.jha

Physical Fitness: why it is so important?

Physical fitness is the utilisation of excessive calories by cardiovascular and muscular processes bringing the body to optimum efficiency. It comprises the following factors.

1) utilisation of excessive calories

2) purification and circulation of blood by cardiovascular and muscular processes.

3) Bringing the body to optimum efficiency

The energy provided by the food is measured in terms of calories. These calories are used by our bodies for normal functioning such as respiration, digestion and circulation etc. The excess calories are converted into fat and stored in the body for future use.

Physical fitness envisages the utilisation of these excessive calories resulting in the non-accumulation of fat.

Food habits differ from region to region and country to country. Food is categorised as proteins, carbohydrates and fats. The food we eat may contain some of these basic components.

We consume approximately 2000 to 2500 calories of food per day. Of this, approximately 1200 calories are utilised for normal body functions such as respiration, digestion etc. Of this, approximately 600 calories are consumed by the body for normal day-to-day activities such as housework, office work etc. The remaining calories are converted into fat and stored in the body.

Calories consumption applies to body weight and intensity of activity with a simple formula of 1:3:6 per kg of body weight per hour.

Dieting

Dieting is commonly understood to mean eating less or reducing the calories intake to reduce the body weight or body mass.

The best form of dieting is the low-calorie diet which does not eliminate any of the basic components of food such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats since a lack of them will upset the metabolic function of the body. The basic components required by the body for the building of tissues, growth, repair and energy for day-to-day use. It is a marked tendency to increase body weight after the age of 25 years since, after school and college years, we are less active. An accumulation of 3500 calories will increase to 500 grams in body weight.

B) Purification and circulation of blood by cardiovascular and muscular process

The cardiovascular and muscular process of the body involves

a) the heart and circulatory system of veins,arteries, and capillaries

b) the lungs and purification of blood

c) the supply of purified blood to the muscles and different parts of the body

2) Heart and Circulatory system

A physically active life is one in which the heart, lungs, and muscles of the body are kept active.

Oxygenated blood is pumped into the heart from the lungs through pulmonary veins. From the heart the oxygenated blood is pumped into different parts of the body through aorta.

The supply of oxygenated blood varies according to the needs of the human body and the rate of heart beat.So any increase in the body activities will automatically cause the heart to increase the supply of oxygenated (pure) blood.

This cardiovascular and muscular process is called circulation.

2) Lungs and Respiratory system

Atmospheric oxygen is drawn through the nose and mouth into the lungs which are located in the chest cavity for the oxygenation of blood. When we breathe out, the polluted deoxygenated and stale air from inside the lungs is exhaled. The more deeply we breathe the more purified and oxygenated becomes for supply to other parts of the body. The oxygenate breathed in during inhalation is absorbed by the blood in the capillaries and pumped to all parts of the body by the heart.

3) Musculature

The muscles of the human body are divided into voluntary and involuntary. The voluntary muscles are the muscles of the arms, legs, chest, abdomen etc. which can be moved at our will. These muscles are located on the outside of the skeletal system giving the body mass and shape and facilitating easy movement of the body. The involuntary muscles are the muscles of the heart and other internal organs of the body which can not be moved at our will and function independently. Over 500 muscles cover more than 60% of the body mass.

Cardiovascular test

When we sleep, since the muscles are at rest and only the internal organs are functioning, the heart requires not more than 60 heartbeats per minute to meet the body’s requirement of oxygenated blood.

Below 40 years

In a standing position, the total muscle mass is activated for coordination and balance of the body and the heartbeat is increased to approximately 88 beats per minute to meet the additional need. When we are walking due to the complete mobilisation of muscles mass, the pulse beat increases to over 100 beats per minute depending upon the intensity of walking.

It has been found that in persons who are not physically active, the pulse best is much higher in the above situation. Physically inactive person’s heart beats at approximately 10 beats more than a fit person’s heart in the above situations.Under stress and exertion, the physically unfit heart has at certain times to almost double the heart beat rate to meet the same body requirement.This shows that the heart beat is weak and shallow and the blood output per beat is much less than a fit person’s.

A strong and well-exercised heart is capable of a much stronger best which pumps out a longer volume of oxygenated blood through the arteries. So, total well-being is heavily dependent upon the heart, lungs and muscles of the human body which, if not properly maintained, will result in the deterioration of the body before its time.

4) Optimum efficiency

Strength

Optimum efficiency is the ability of the body to function according to its chronological age.

Above 40 years

Flexibility

A physically active body that is well-exercised remains in good condition. However, a body that is not exercised due to modern time-saving devices cars, volume cleaners etc.

To determine the physiological age as opposed to the chronological age of the body, it is necessary to consider three factors:

1) Excessive calories

2) Cardiovascular process

3) Muscular process

The following tests will indicate whether or not you have consumed excessive calories and the efficiency of your body, heart and muscles.

Physiological Age tests

Height – weight ratio

Cardiovascular test

Muscular efficiency

a) co- ordination

Above 40 years

Below 40 years

To test the round coordination of muscles for the age group below 40 years, persons of this age group must pass the following test.

Above 40 years

Speed

Stand with both legs firmly on the ground. with a jump in the air turn 360 degrees and land back firmly on the ground.

In case your foot moves after landing on the ground or you lose balance, you have failed the tests and you should add one year to your age.

Stand with one leg on the ground and another leg raised 12″ off the ground with both knees straight. Close your eyes and balance for 30 seconds. In case your standing foot shifts or you lose balance, you have failed this test and added one year to your age.

Strength

Below 40 years

Do one push-up in the following rule. Take the basic portion of a push-up with only toes and palms touching the ground and the body raised. Lower your body towards the ground without touching the ground. In one explosive upward movement lift the body and the arms off the ground with the toes still in contact with the ground without the body touching the ground. In case, you fail, add one year to your chronological age.

Above 40 years

Do one push-up in the following ways. Take the basic position of a push-up with toes touching the ground and both palms together under the face, with only toes and palms touching the ground. Lower your body to touch the back of the palms with the forehead or nose and raise the body back to the starting position. If you fail, add one year to your chronological age. This single test is sufficient to indicate basic body strength.

Flexibility

Below 40 years

Stand upright with legs shoulder-width apart. Bend towards the waist with straight knees and touch the ground between the legs with the palm of your hand. If you fail, add one year to your chronological age.

Above 40 years

Stand with legs shoulder-width apart. Bend forward without bending the knees and touch the ground with your fingertips. If you fail, add one year to your chronological age.

Speed

This test is common to both age groups. It indicates the coordination of the mind and body.

Stand upright with arms at the side, elbows bent at 90 degrees with palms facing each other 12″ apart. Have a colleague hold a pen between the palms with the tip of the pen in line with the upper ridge of the palms. Have the pen released suddenly. Catch the pen before it slips through the palms without lowering the hands or bending down. If you fail, add one year to your chronological age.

Optimum Efficiency and Results

Your physiological age

After completing the above tests , fill in the results of the tests in the format given below to ascertain the physiological state of your body.

Tests. |passed|failed|add one year if fail

1) height\weight ratio

2) pulse rate test

3) coordination test

4) strength test

5) flexibility test

6) speedy test

Total=add your chronological age+your physiological age

In case, your physiological age and chronological age are the same, it means that you are physically fit. In case, your physiological age is more than your chronological age, it indicates the body is not functioning with optimum efficiency and needs immediate attention.

Dr S.k.jha

Inflammatory bowel disease

Many people are suffering from inflammatory diseases of bowel, but ignorance of knowledge and not thinking about their health will get the problem later.

People with IBD ( Inflammatory bowel disease) like chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis have chronic inflammation.

Actually, IBD is a group of disorders that cause chronic inflammation( pain and swelling) in the intestine.IBD includes chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Both types affect the digestive system. Proper treatment can help manage this lifelong condition.

Symptoms

a) stomach cramps

b) Diarrhoea

c) gas

d) bloating

d) loss of appetite

e) mucus or blood in stool

f) upset stomach

Rarely, IBD may also cause-

1) fatigue

2) fever

3) itchy, red, painful eye

4) joint pain

5) nausea and vomiting

6) skin rashes and sores( ulcer)

7) vision problems

Nearly, 4-5 million Americans and other people from different countries have some form of IBD. This condition affects all ages and genders. IBD most commonly occur between the age of 15 and 30.

Types

chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the main types of IBD.

1) Chron’s disease – it causes pain and swelling in the digestive tract. It can affect any part of the mouth to the anus. It most commonly affects the small intestine and upper part of the large intestine.

2) Ulcerative colitis – it causes swelling and sores(ulcers) in the large intestine( colon and rectum).

3) Microscopic colitis– it causes intestinal inflammation that is only detectable with a microscope.

Causes

Researchers and scientists are still trying to determine the reason about IBD.

Three factors appear to play a role –

1) Genetics – as many as 1 in 4 people with IBD have a family history of the disease.

2) Immune system response – the immune system typically fights off infection. In people with IBD, the immune system mistakes foods for Foreign substances. It releases antibodies ( proteins) to fight off this threat, causing the IBD system.

3) Environmental triggers – people with a family history of IBD may develop the disease after exposure to an environmental trigger.

These triggers include smoking, stress, medication use and depression.

Diagnosis test

1) blood examination

2) colonoscopy – to examine the large and small intestine

3) EUS( endoscopic ultrasound) – to check the digestive system for swelling and pain

4) Flexible sigmoidoscopy – to examine the inside of the rectum

5) Imaging scans such as CT scans or MRI – to check for signs of information or abscesses.

6) Upper endoscopy – to examine the digestive tract from the mouth to the start of the small intestine.

7) Capsule endoscopy- using a small camera device that you swallow. The camera capture images as it travels through the digestive tract.

Complications

People with IBD have a higher risk of developing colon ( colorectal) cancer.

Others are

a) anal fistula

b) anaemia

c) anal stenosis

d) kidney stones

e) liver diseases such as cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis

f) osteoporosis

g) perforated bowel( hole or tear in the large intestine)

h) toxic megacolon ( severe intestine swelling)

Management and treatment

IBD treatment varies depending on the particular type and symptoms, medications can help control inflammation.

1) Aminosalicylates

2) Corticosteroids such as prednisone

Others are- anti-diarrheal medicine, NSAIDs, vitamins and supplements like probiotics

Surgical treatment for chron’s disease

As many as 8 in 12 people with a chron’s disease eventually need surgery, where medications no longer period symptom relief.

In the case of ulcerative colitis – after 30+ years of living with ulcerative colitis, about 1 in 3 people need surgery.

Prevention

1) eat a smaller meal every two to four hours

2) quit smoking

3) find a healthy way to manage stress such as medication, movement like going for a walk or listening to music

4) get plenty of sleep and stay physically active

5) reduce foods that irritate the intestines such as spicy, greasy or made with milk if they are not digested.

6) cut off caffeine, carbonated and alcoholic beverages. Drink more water to prevent dehydration.

So, take care and keep healthy.

Dr S.k.jha

Emergency Psychiatric Problems

A psychiatric emergency is a disturbance in thoughts moods and actions that cause sudden distress to the individual or sudden disability, thus requiring immediate management of such disorders.

Around 1in 5 of the world’s children and adolescents have a mental disorders.

A psychiatric emergency is a dangerous or life-threatening situation in which a patient needs immediate attention.

Types of Psychiatric Emergencies

1) A new psychiatric disorder with acute onset

2) A chronic psychiatric disorder with relapse

3) An abnormal response to a stressful situation

4) Iatrogenic emergency

a) side effects or toxicity of the psychotropic medication

b) psychiatric symptomatology as a side effect or toxicity of other medications

5) Alcohol or drug dependence

a) overdose

b) as withdrawal syndrome

c) complications

d) deliberate harm to self or others

Types of problems

1) Social problems – family separation, poverty, lack of privacy, loss of livelihood

2) Mental Health problems – depression, schizophrenia, acute stress reduction, use of alcohol and drugs, post-traumatic stress disorders

People with severe mental disorders are especially vulnerable during emergencies and need access to mental health care and other basic needs

Etiology

There are some common causes of mental illness:

a) psychiatric disorder

b) depression

c) alcoholism and drug dependence

d) schizophrenia

2) Physical factors – people with incurable or painful physical disorders like AIDS, Cancer , and Kidney failure often leads to emergency care and develop psychiatric disorders.

3) Psychosocial factors – it is a very important reason for arising psychiatric disorders such as failure in examination, marital difficulties, divorce, family disputes, failure in love etc.

Psychological factors lead to

1) stupor and catatonic syndrome

2) excited behaviour and violence

It is due to mania, depression, drug and alcohol dependence, and organic and Non-organic psychiatric disorders.

4) Other Psychiatric emergencies are:

a) severe depression

b) insomnia

c) hyperventilation syndrome

d) anorexia nervosa

e) drug or alcohol use disorder

f) psychological crisis( marital conflict, occupational and financial difficulties)

g) panic disorder

h) acute psychosis

Sadness

5)Suicide- it is the most commonest cause of death among psychiatric patients. It is a crisis that causes intense suffering and feelings of hopelessness and helplessness.

Examination

When anyone is faced with a psychiatric emergency, it is important to combine speed with obtaining a complete history/information.

1) Psychiatric history – always obtain a history from both the parents and the informants. Informants may be more knowledgeable and may provide more relevant information.

a) chief complaint

b) recent life changes

c) level of adjustment

d) past history

e) family history

f) drug and alcohol history

2) Detailed general physical and neurological examination

3) Mental status examination

People with a severe disorder die 10to 20 years earlier than the general age consideration.

Mental, Neurological and substance use disorders make up 10% of the global burden of disease and 30% of the non-fatal disease burden.

Management

1) Medication

2) Psychotherapy

3) Electroconvulsive therapy

4) Cognitive behaviour therapy

5) Find out the reason and treat accordingly

Emergency treatment should be on immediate medical care (diagnosis and treatment of the underlying psychiatric problems) and an attempt to establish a bond with the patients.

There are some tips for improving mental health:

1) Get enough sleep

2) see a therapist

3) spend time in nature

4) pursue a hobby

5) spend less time with devices, gadgets and electronics

6) connect with family and friends

7) express yourself

8) forgive yourself

9) practice deep calm breathing

10) do some exercise and yoga

Mental Illness

So, I think, all of you know enough about it and living with family and friends stress-free.

Dr S.k.jha

Yoga and Health: how to keep your body fit

Yoga word itself strikes in mind keeping fit mind and body. Yoga is a practice that connects the body, mind and breath. It uses physical postures, breathing exercises and meditation to improve overall health. Actually, Yoga was developed as a spiritual practice thousands of years ago. It has been coming from ancient times, but recently in the past few decades, it is using to reduce obesity, flexibility, hypertension and other ailments.

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Scientists and Researchers also agree on the point that yoga is beneficial for health purposes also.

Yoga is usually divided into eight rings or limbs. Which are :

1) Yama

2) Niyama

3) Asana

4) Pranayama

5) Pratyahora

6) Dharana

7) Samadhi

8) Dhayana

It is a holistic way of life leading to a state of complete physical, mental and spiritual well- being and harmony with nature.

Yoga can be used by any age group for reducing mental stress, diabetes, and hypertension as well as reducing depression and anxiety also.

The nature of Yoga is to shine the light of awareness into the darkest corners of the body.

Although, Yoga originated in India thousands of years ago. Yoga has been proved by researchers that is effective in the prevention as well as management of stress and stress-induced disorders.

It has been known that yoga is beneficial for health conditions like decreasing anxiety, stress, fear, obesity and hypertension.

1) Obesity and overweight – obesity and overweight are strong risk factors for diabetes, hypertension and ischemic heart disease. Yoga has been found to be helpful in the management of obesity. Many people are suffering from obesity due to lifestyle and junk food habits. Less physical exercise increases overweight.

2) Hypertension – Regular yoga practice for 1/2 hours per day is also found to control hypertension. Yoga together with Psychotherapy, relaxation, biofeedback and meditation has been found convincing antihypertensive effects.

3) Diabetes– In India and in the world, there are a large number of cases of diabetes. The practice of Yoga regularly can help in the control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Yoga also has a beneficial cognitive brain function.

4) Lipid profile – Elevated serum total cholesterol, LDL, and Triglyceride are risk factors for Ischemic heart disease, so Yoga is beneficial for controlling these factors.

5) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – Yoga practice improves lung function and strength of inspiratory and expiratory muscles. Yoga can improve the quality of life.

Yoga can improve overall fitness levels and improve flexibility and posture.

a) it helps in relaxation

b) it lowers blood pressure level and heart rate

c) it improves self-confidence

d) it improves coordination

e) it reduces stress

f) it improves concentration

g) it reduced anxiety, back pain and depression

h) it helps in sound sleep

I) it boosts the immune system functionally

j) it prevents irritable bowel syndrome and another digestive system

k) it gives inner strength

l) it improves flexibility, builds muscle strength, perfect posture, and prevents cartilage and joint breakdown.

m) it is also better for bone health

n) it improves balance and relaxes the system

Therefore, it is concluded that the practice of Yoga is beneficial for all the dimensions of health i.e. physical, social, mental and spiritual. There are different types of Yoga. As per the yoga instructor, we should have to practice yoga under his guidance.

But always remember: wrongly body incorrect asana and breathing incorrectly, while exercising can be harmful to health and body.

So Yoga is a light, which once lit will never dim.

So, Yoga is so beneficial for the body that not anyone can doubt on yoga.

Dr S.k.jha

Prevention of coronary artery disease by quitting smoking

All of us know that smoking is injurious to health, still, people are doing it. Smoking is the major and avoidable cause of premature death and ill-health in the world. About 30% of the smoking-related deaths are due to coronary heart disease and smoking is responsible for about 20% of all deaths from CHD.

Why is smoking risky?

Tobacco smoke is a dangerous cocktail of over 4000 thousand chemicals, 60 of which are carcinogens. Nicotine, carbon monoxide and tar are the poisons. Nicotine is a highly addictive toxic substance. Nicotine damages the heart in the following ways:

1) stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and causes the body to release more stress hormones like adrenaline, which increases the heart rate and blood pressure.

2) the heartbeat can become irregular

3) induces spasms in the coronaries, damages the endothelial lining, and promotes the formation and progression of atherosclerosis.

4) can trigger a major ischemic event

5) increases the stickiness of platelets and fibrinogen levels and promotes clot formation.

Carbon monoxide enters the bloodstream and binds to the haemoglobin reducing the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

It is important to note that apart from the smoker the people around(passive smokers) especially the family members who are exposed repeatedly to the smoke are also at great risk. Since passive smokers inhale the smoke that is not filtered the toxic effects are said to be much more in them.

Why do people start smoking

Smoking is a learned behaviour. Studies have shown that children at a young age are aware of smoking because of the publicity it receives in the various media. Smoking starts commonly in the adolescents age or young adults and can be due to:

1) peer group pressure

2) a desire to rebel- the act of defiance

3) out of curiosity and suggestibility.

Why do people continue to smoke?

Many people continue to smoke though they are aware of the health risks. The reasons are for this behaviour could be:

1) the serious ill effects are not seen immediately and smokers feel that no damage is being done to them and hence continue to smoke.

2) protection by denial — smokers falsely try to protect themselves by thinking that nothing will happen to them or feeling that they can give up anytime.

3) highly addictive nature of nicotine – the dependence can be physical/chemical/psychological/ emotional. It can be a learned behaviour becoming an automatic habit.

4) smokers feel that they are getting benefits like enjoyment, relaxation, concentration, weight control, and mood control by smoking.

5) fear of failure to quit

How do help smokers to quit?

Doctors and other health professionals have the highest credibility to persuade and help smokers to quit. It is helpful to know the target groups who can quit smoking relatively easily so that they can be identified and helped to quit.

1) adolescents and teenagers

2) pregnant women

3) people who have recently become parents or grandparents

4) adults with established smoking-related diseases

5) adults who seem to be aware of the health risks.

Health professionals must be explained that the so-called benefits of quitting smoking can be easily in a healthier way through meditation, stress management, exercise getting more involved in the family. The relaxation a cigarette gives is nothing but a dangerous addiction to nicotine. Apart from the long term health benefits( reduced risk of CHD, lung cancer and other smoking-related diseases) that quitting gives the short term benefits like the food tasting better, breathing becoming easier, getting rid of smokers’ coughs that smell will not be offensive etc. must be explained. Quitting smoking may add a few kilos of weight which can be easily controlled by diet and exercise.

Once the smokers have quit smoking there are chances that they may go into a relapse. So, here again, the health professionals and the family members have a very important role in preventing the relapse.

So, I hope we should take some steps for the benefit of people’s health.

Dr S.k.jha

Diabetes: Is it dangerous to health?

Nowadays, Diabetes is a common disorder in the world. But many people may never realize, how did they get diabetes and what will happen to them and what will they go through. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is identified by high blood sugar levels. Increased blood sugar levels damage the vital organs of the human body causing other potential health ailments.

It is the most common endocrine disorder. It is characterised by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes.

The basis of abnormalities in carbohydrates, fat and protein metabolism in diabetes is the deficient action of insulin on the target tissues. Deficient insulin action results from inadequate insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue response to insulin at one or more points in the complex pathways of hormone action.

Classification

1) Primary – a) type 1

b) type 2

2) Secondary – due to other pathology-

1) Gestational diabetes

2) Generic syndrome associated with Diabetes

3) Uncommon immune mediated

4) Genetic defects of insulin secretion

5) Endocrinopathies

6) Drug induced

7) Toxin induced

8) Genetic effects of beta- cells

9) Secondary to infection

Type 1 diabetes, the cause is an absolute deficiency of insulin secretion.

Type 2 diabetes, the cause is a combination of resistance to insulin action and an inadequate compensatory insulin secretory response.

Testing for Diabetes in presumably healthy individuals

Type 1 diabetes is usually an autoimmune disease, characterized by the presence of a variety of autoantibodies to protein episodes on the surface of or within the beta cells of the pancreas. The presence of such markers before the development of the overt disease can identify patients at risk.

It is epidemiological evidence that retinopathy begins to develop at least 7 years before the clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Because hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes causes microvascular disease and may cause contribute to macrovascular disease, the undiagnosed disease is a serious condition.

Screening for Diabetes

Urine examination – urine testing for glucose 2 hours after a meal is used in medical practice for detecting cases of diabetes.

Blood sugar testing – Blood sugar testing remains the cornerstone of the diagnosis of diabetes. Mass screening programs have used glucose measurement for fasting, postprandial or random samples. The most reliable is the combination of fasting and 2 hours post radial blood glucose testing.

Target population – screening of high-risk groups seems more appropriate. These groups are-

a) age 40 and above

b) family history of diabetes

c) person with obesity

d) women who have had a baby of more than 4.5 kg

e) women showing excessive weight gain during pregnancy

f) patients with premature atherosclerosis

Symptoms

1) extreme thirst

2) excessive urination

3) weight loss

4) stomach problem

5) foot problem

6) high blood pressure

7) low concentrations

8) sweat smell breath

9) cracked skin

10) loss of consciousness

Prevention

Primary prevention

a) population strategy – the development of prevention programs for Diabetes based on the elimination of environmental risk factors is possible. The measures comprise normal body weight through the adoption of healthy nutritional habits and regular physical exercise. The nutritional habits include an adequate protein intake, a high intake of dietary fibre and avoidance of sweet foods.

b) High-risk strategy – Nutritional education, nutritional rehabilitation and management of obesity are the hallmarks of reducing the incidence and prevalence of diabetes.

Secondary prevention

The aim of the treatment is-a) to maintain the blood glucose levels as close to normal limits as possible

b) to maintain body weight in the ideal range for the desirable BMI level

The treatment is based on

a) diet modification alone

b) dist change along with oral hypoglycemic drugs

c) diet change and insulin

Good control of diabetes prevents complications that would otherwise have taken place

Routine checks are a must for

Blood Pressure, blood sugar, urine for protein and ketones, visual acuity and weight, defective circulation in the feet, loss of sensation of the skin, estimation of Glycated Haemoglobin levels yearly etc.

Tertiary prevention

Diabetes is a major cause of deformity and disability through its communication like blindness, kidney failure, coronary thrombosis, and gangrene of the feet.

Long term complications

1) peripheral atherosclerosis – it may cause intermittent claudication, gangrene, coronary artery disease and stroke.

2) cardiomyopathy – it can cause heart failure.

3) Diabetic retinopathy

4) Renal disease – it is a major cause of death and disability.

5) peripheral sensory neuropathy causes numbness, paraesthesia, severe hypothesis, and pain that may be deep-seated and severe and it often works at night.

Dr S.k.jha