Depression: What are the physical symptoms of depression?

Depression nowadays is common among people. It is a common mental health condition that can cause both physical and psychological symptoms. The physical symptoms include fatigue, sleeping more or less than usual and appetite changes.

These symptoms may occur as a result of changes in brain activity, hormone levels or neurotransmitter levels.

There are some physical symptoms of depression:

1) Chest pain– it can be a sign of heart, lung or stomach problems. sometimes, depression can also raise the risk of heart disease. People who have had heart attacks previously are more likely to be depressed.

2) sleep problems – Depression can not only affect the body but also it affects the mind. Trouble sleeping is common in people who are depressed or stressed.

3) Fatigue and exhaustion- if anyone feels so tired that they don’t have energy tasks- even when they sleep or rest a lot- it may be a sign that they are depressed. Depression and fatigue together tend to make both conditions seem worse.

4) Digestive problems – our brain and digestive systems are strongly connected, which is why many of us get stomach pain or nausea when we are stressed or worried.

5) Aching muscles and joints – when we live with continuous pain, it can raise the risk of depression.

Depression may also lead to pain because the two conditions share chemical messengers in the brain. People who are depressed are three times as likely to get regular pain.

6) Headache – Research shows that people with major depression are three times more likely to have migraines and are five times more likely to get depressed.

7) Agitated and restless- sleep problems or other depression symptoms can make agitated and restless. Men are more likely than women to be irritable when they are depressed.

8) Back Pain – when people are hurt regularly, it may contribute to depression. And people who are depressed may be four times more likely to get intense, disabling neck or back pain.

9) changes in appetite – some people feel less hungry when they get depressed. Others can not stop eating and feel hungry often.

Depression has been linked to eating disorders like bulimia, anaemia or binge eating.

10) sexual problems – if anyone is depressed, might lose interest in sex.people will not interested to keep relation in a depressed mood.

11) Exercise – Research suggests that if people do exercise regularly, it releases chemicals in the brain that make them feel good, improve their mood and reduce pain sensitivity.

If someone is depressed, it can be hard to get the energy to do exercise. But, try to remember that can ease fatigue and feel good.

So, depression is a mood disorder that affects how someone thinks, feels and behaves. It may cause them to feel sad, worthless or numb for a prolonged period.

Dr S.k.jha


Types of Depression

Depression is a medical condition that affects anyone, no matter their age, gender or circumstances. It affects the mood and ability to function. Women may experience depression more often than men.

Depression is common all over the world. Without treatment, depression can get worse and last longer. In severe cases, it can lead to self-harm or death.

Usually, people feel sad or depressed once in a while, but when they are sad most of the time and it affects their daily life, may suffer from clinical depression.

There are different types of depression:

1) Major depression( clinically known as clinical depression) – it is characterised by a combination of symptoms that interfere with a person’s ability to work, sleep, eat and enjoy once pleasurable activities.

Sometimes, they may feel sad, lonely or hopeless for a few days but major depression- lasts longer and is disabling. It can prevent functionality normally. The depressed mood or loss of interest will remain daily for at least two-three weeks.

2) Chronic depression or Dysthymia

It is characterised by a long-term ( two years or more) depressed mood. It is less severe than major depression and typically does not disable the person.

3) Atypical depression- the key symptoms are a) overeating

b) oversleeping

c) fatigue

d) extreme sensitivity to rejection

e) moods that worsen or improve indirectly in response to events.

3) Bipolar Depression– it is a complex mood disorder that alternates between periods of clinical depression and times of extreme elation or mania.

There are two subtypes:

1) Bipolar 1 disorder – in this case, the patient has a history of at least one manic episode with or without major depressive episodes.

2) Bipolar 2- patients have a history of at least one episode of major depression and at least one hypomanic( mildly elated) episode.

4) Seasonal depression often called seasonal affective disorder – it is a depression that occurs each year at the same time.It starts usually in the winter and ends in spring or early summer. It is a rare form of SAD known as “summer depression” begins in late spring or early summer and ends in fall.

5) Psychotic depression– delusional thoughts or other symptoms of psychosis accompany the symptoms of depression. Patients with psychotic depression experience hallucinations and delusions.

6) Persistent depressive disorder – if people have depression for more than 2 years or longer, it is called a persistent depressive disorder. These are some symptoms – a) sleeping too much or too little

b) changes in appetite

c) lack of energy

d) low self-esteem

e) lack of concentration

f) feeling hopeless

7) Postpartum depression – as many as 70% of new moms get the ” baby blue ” but about one in 10 moms develop a more serious condition called postpartum depression.

8) Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder( PMOD) – women with PMOD have depression and other symptoms at the start of their period.

Symptoms are- mood swings, irritability, anxiety, trouble concentrating, fatigue etc.

9) Situational depression- people may have a depressed mood when they are having trouble managing stressful events in their life such as the loss of a family member, a divorce or losing a job.

So, these are some types of depression.

I hope, all of you will take care of your health.

Dr S.k.jha

Depression Triggers as we age: what are the factors?

Each year more than 45 million people in the world suffer from depression and anxiety disorder. Fear, anxiety, and stress are a normal part of life, even adaptive in many conditions.

There are some factors/ triggers which can affect people in some way.

1) Midlife can make miserable – according to research, midlife depression affects the globe. In the world, it peaks at around age 40 for women and 50 plus for men and usually starts to lift in the 50.

2) Depression trigger: overload of work – women suffer from the demands of children, ageing parents, marriage and jobs. They are feeling sad, worthless and guilty.

3) Changes in sex drive– as men age increase, their bodies produce less of the important sex hormone testosterone. Low testosterone levels can cause depression as well as erectile dysfunction, trouble getting an erection – and a decreased interest in sex. They lead to depression in people both men and women.

4) Thyroid disorders – in the case of overactive thyroid, it could be accompanied by heart problems, tremors or fatigue. An underactive thyroid can cause constipation or fatigue.

5) Achy joints – living with chronic pain such as arthritis or gout, and osteoarthritis increase the chance of having depression.

6) Perimenopause or menopause – Hormone fluctuations hit flushes and life changes related to perimenopause and menopause can make the mood swing. Mood swings or depression may worsen during this transitional period.

7) Low vitamin B12 – low vitamin B12 level may be caused by depression or lethargy.

8) Type 2 diabetes – Depression is a common and dangerous complication of many chronic conditions, including diabetes.

9) Drinking habits – about 1 in 5 older people, and young people who drink heavily have major depression. Some people start drinking more because of stressful events such as retirement or an overload of work in the office and home.

10) Poor sleep – Insomnia and other sleep disruptions which are common as we age, are closely related to depression. Obstructive sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome also have been linked to depression.

11) Retirement – if anyone were forced to retire because of poor health or other reasons – might very well be depressed. Factors such as financial insecurity or lack of social support can also make retirement or depressing conditions.

12) Heart problems – it is common to feel depressed after a diagnosis of heart disease or having a heart attack or cardiac surgery. But, many people with heart disease go on to experience severe, long-term depression.

13) Loneliness – social support can help prevent or ease depression. Those people who stayed connected with friends living elsewhere had less depression.


So, maintain keep in touch with close friends.

14) Health conditions – any chronic or serious condition such as Parkinson’s disease or a stroke can lead to depression. A stroke can also affect the areas of the brain that control mood.

15) Grief– It is normal to grieve after losing a spouse or other loved one. Memory problems, confusion and social withdrawal can be symptoms of depression.

16) Laughter– A good laugh can relax muscles, reduce stress and relieve anxiety. It can change the mood and feel relaxed.

So, take care of your health because depression is a medical illness- a health problem related to changes in the brain.

Dr S.k.jha

Anxiety and Depression: Nowadays

Each year more than 45 million people in the world suffer from an anxiety disorder and over 28 million people suffer from some type of depressive illness in their life. Having anxiety and depression is like being scared and tired at the same time.

It is the fear of failure but no urge to be productive. More than 45 -50 Lakhs people in the world suffer from an anxiety disorder and over 20-38 Lakhs people are suffering from some type of depressive illness. Fear, anxiety and stress are a normal part of life and even adaptive in many conditions. Usually, normal anxiety keeps us alert.

Anxiety is universal as sadness. people are scared and fear of this cat and rat race life. They are not coming out and living stress-free Life. Some are losing a job, some are living in poverty and some are not adjusted to life.

Anxiety is a psychological experience, separated from the syndrome with prominent physical symptoms. It is wanting friends, and family but hating socialising. It is wanting to be alone but not wanting to be lonely. It is feeling everything once and then feeling paralysingly numb.

Actually, anxiety and depression are one of the most common mental disorders. No one has escaped from anxiety and depression in their lives.

DSM4 – described five forms of anxiety disorders: –

1) panic

2) generalised anxiety disorder

3) obsessive-compulsive disorder

4) phobia

5) post-traumatic stress disorder( PTSD)

So, normally anxiety and stress are common factors in life also, which affect the health of people. Everyone gets nervous or anxious from time to time, but nowadays, due to a busy schedule in life, people are suffering more.

Anxiety comes in many different forms – such as phobia, panic attacks and social anxiety. Being anxious and depressed can make feel hopeless. Changing behaviour, physical activity, lifestyle and even one way of thinking — all are depression problems.

Spend time with good people who are good for your mental health.


1) Dizziness

2) confusion

3) out of body experience

4) early rising

5)Blurred vision

6) clinched stomach

7) hot/ cold flushes

8) headache

9) chest pain

10) shallow breathing

11) Tingling arms and legs

12) shaky etc

So, depression and anxiety affect people in their work-life, family life and social life. Depression and anxiety carry a higher risk of suicidal tendency.

More than 80% of people with clinical depression can be successfully treated with early recognition, intervention and support.

So, remember your strongest muscle and worst enemy are your minds.

Train it well

Depression is a mood disorder with feelings of sadness, loss or anger that interfere with a person’s daily life.

People in a depressing stage

So, I hope everyone will agree with me and live life stress-free.

Dr S.k.jha

Stress, health and Disease

Everyone has stress. It is a normal part of life. But when people constantly react to stressful situations without making adjustments, it is harmful to their health and mental.

In stress and anxiety, people begin to tremble, and their hands become cold and clammy, there is a sinking feeling in the stomach, an increased rate of respiration and dryness of the mouth.

Chronic stress can wear down the body’s immune system leading to a variety of mental and physical symptoms such as Dizziness, loss of interest headache, grinding teeth, body ache, clenched jaws and fists, fatigue, tiredness and exhaustion etc.

So, the relationship between stress and disease is an enormous area of discourse that fires the popular imagination. Although it is difficult to correlate stress and disease.

Prolonged anxiety and tension can produce physiological disorders involving specific body organs ranging from minor ailments like eczema, arthritis, palpitations, indigestion, diarrhoea, constipation and disturbed sleep.

But prolonged stress can be increased major disorders like hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes or cancer, which are life-threatening by lowering our resistance.

The most common stress-related diseases are:

1) Cardiovascular disorder

a) Hypertension — it is directly related to stress on people. Many of our daily activities require intense alertness. This puts a lot of pressure, stress and anxiety on an individual. Uncontrolled blood pressure can strain the heart and contribute to the hardening of blood vessels. This in turn premature heart attack, neurological problems and other diseases of the blood vessels.

2) Chronic heart disease – in chronic heart disease, angina occurs, which is the tight gripping pain in the precordial region which may radiate to the left arm, neck or jaw. When the blood supply is inadequate for the heart, it happens because of narrowing arteries, so stress is a major contributor to the development of atherosclerosis, spasm of coronary arteries.

3) Palpitation- palpitation occurring frequently as a response to stress can damage the heart.

4) Headache( Migraine/ tension) – stress can lead to the contribution of muscles on the scalp, neck and forehead causing tension headache. Migraine is the throbbing pain and stress is said to be an important trigger for migraine.

4) Ulcer- in the condition of stress and anxiety, physical discomfort may become so magnified as to be incapacitating.

5) Chronic Fatigue – A constant feeling of fatigue or tiredness is the commonest symptom of stress. Fatigue can develop due to stress whether physical, mental or emotional.

6) Irritable Bowel Syndrome – abdominal pain, diarrhoea alternating with constipation, sense of incomplete evacuation, bloating occurs due to stress also.

So, stress can be a major factor in psychological problems like depression, phobia and anxiety. The stress may or may not be directly related to the cause of these disorders, but its presence for prolonged periods is certainly related to the worsening of the conditions.

In life, we all face disappointments and unpleasant situations and the common response to these is to feel depressed.

A depressed person loses initiative and interest in everything going around him/her. So, it is hard to feel that any diseases in which stress can not play an aggravating role or any part of the body that is not affected.

Remember a little bit of stress is required in life for proper functioning. But the prolonged high level of stress can ruin our life— both physical and mental.

It is my advice to people to live a longer life…… stress-free

Dr S.k.jha

The Power of a hug could make all the difference in life: what do you think?

We all know that hugs can be comforting during hard times. Hugging helps lower our stress throughout the day.

Researchers found that in the act of hugging, our brain can produce soothing chemicals that help us feel safer and less threatened throughout the day.

One hug from the right person takes all your stress away.

For those who are grieving – either over the loss of a loved one or hearing news of tragic events that killed on board- nothing one says can alleviate the pain and suffering they are going through. But there is something in a hug that makes the aggrieved feel less pained, less stressed and less lost.

Scientists say that the person who received a hug from their family members, partner, or friends had lower blood pressure and heart rate during stressful situations. The Researchers think that the oxytocin hormone tends to reduce stress and increase the happy feeling.

This wordless has worked for millions of people. so the next time, you are going in for a handshake, try a hug and see how you feel afterwards.

Sometimes, all you need is a hug from the right person and all your stress melt away.

The hugs for a shorter duration are less effective than those of a longer duration, even if the hug is from a stranger.

The benefits of hugging are so powerful that it helps people feel less anxious. Hugging is proven to make us healthier and happier.

Hugs don’t just confer emotionally closeness; they have been shown to improve our mental and physical health.

Hugs can change a negative mood by helping the body and mind.

Hugging is the most beautiful force of communication that allows the other person to know beyond a doubt that they matter.

Researchers say that a hug may make an individual feel happy by reducing feelings of loneliness and the harmful physical effects of stress.

Researchers show that a proper deep hug may give the following benefits:

1)it builds trust and a sense of safety.

2) Hugs strengthen the immune system.

3) Because of releasing oxytocin, helps in healing some negative feelings such as loneliness, isolation and anger.

4) Hugging boosts self-esteem. All the hugs we received from our partners, friends and lovers make us more self-confident and happier.

5) Hugging relaxes the muscle by releasing tension in the body.

6) A hug lowers the heart rate and blood pressure.

7) A hug makes us more mindful and aware of the current situation.

Sometimes, a hug is an answer, even when the question is not known.

Hugging speaks volumes without having to use words and is comforting , calming and soothing.

Sometimes, A hug from a person very close to you is worth more than a thousand words.

So, hugs from strangers at a time when you are down and out can work wonders.

Dr S.k.jha

How to quiet your mind?

Each year more than 40 million people in the world suffer from anxiety and stress and 20 million suffer from some type of depressive illness. Fear, anxiety and stress are a normal part of life, even adaptive in many conditions.

So , in the cat and rat race, we have to quiet our minds and keep calm.

There are a few steps for keeping the mind in peace and enjoying life.

1) Breath – we breathe all the time, but during relaxation time, we should pay attention to the rhythm. If we take a short quick breath, try to move toward slower, deeper ones. Lie down relax and breathe slowly and keep the mind free.

2) watch some interesting songs and movies– when people listen to their favourite songs and movies, they feel relaxed, calmer and less stressed. Heart rates and blood pressure dropped too.

3) Exercise – just 5- 15 minutes of exercise, like a brisk walk, yoga could start to calm the mind. It releases endorphin, and oxytocin – chemicals that make us feel good and can help improve our mind, focus and sound sleep.


So, high-intensity interval training can give a big doge of them in a short time.

4) Listen to Bhajans and melodies songs– it calms the activity in the brain. Songs are a good thing to try if you are stressed.

5) Help someone – it lights up part of our brain that makes us feel pleasure and connection. Doing something nice for someone lowers stress and a lesser feeling of loneliness. It may even boost our heart health and immune response.

6) Go outdoors – Being in and around nature often makes people think more clearly and feel more relaxed and refreshed. Spending time outside can also bring down our heart rate, blood pressure, stress hormone and even muscle tension.

7) Progressive muscle relaxation – use the connection of your body to soothe your mind. Pick a body part – foot, leg, mouth, eyes- and tense it for a few seconds. Then release and relax for 10 seconds or so. Again, switch to another part and keep going until you have done your whole body. This can also improve sleep and may even other symptoms such as body ache, headache etc.

8) Hang out with a pet– whether it is in your home or a neighbour’s pet, a friendly pooch can make you feel less anxious, tensed, confused and restless. When you play with them, it seems to lower levels of the stress hormone.

9) Yoga- Yoga can help us get a fit body and mind. A regular practice session lessens anxiety and takes the edge off our natural response plus, it is excessive that builds our strength and flexibility.

10) Get creative – keep busy with some activities like reading a book, painting, and gardening which can offer an escape for a busy mind. It can help us redirect our thoughts and tune out the chatter in our heads. The key is to enjoy the process and not worry so much about the result.

11) Take a break– when you find your mind racing full speed or spiralling down a rabbit hole, change your focus: stretch, daydream, walk around, get a snack or chat with a friend. Take at least a few minutes to recharge and reset.

12) Dig in the dirt- It is not just the great outdoors and the exercise at work here. The soil itself has microorganisms that might help our focus and lift our mood.

Now, this technique teaches us to control our reactions to stress. We could trek our heart rate, body temperature and breathe too. Overall, we will figure out how to calm our body’s response on our own.

Dr S.k.jha

Emergency Psychiatric Problems

A psychiatric emergency is a disturbance in thoughts moods and actions that cause sudden distress to the individual or sudden disability, thus requiring immediate management of such disorders.

Around 1in 5 of the world’s children and adolescents have a mental disorders.

A psychiatric emergency is a dangerous or life-threatening situation in which a patient needs immediate attention.

Types of Psychiatric Emergencies

1) A new psychiatric disorder with acute onset

2) A chronic psychiatric disorder with relapse

3) An abnormal response to a stressful situation

4) Iatrogenic emergency

a) side effects or toxicity of the psychotropic medication

b) psychiatric symptomatology as a side effect or toxicity of other medications

5) Alcohol or drug dependence

a) overdose

b) as withdrawal syndrome

c) complications

d) deliberate harm to self or others

Types of problems

1) Social problems – family separation, poverty, lack of privacy, loss of livelihood

2) Mental Health problems – depression, schizophrenia, acute stress reduction, use of alcohol and drugs, post-traumatic stress disorders

People with severe mental disorders are especially vulnerable during emergencies and need access to mental health care and other basic needs


There are some common causes of mental illness:

a) psychiatric disorder

b) depression

c) alcoholism and drug dependence

d) schizophrenia

2) Physical factors – people with incurable or painful physical disorders like AIDS, Cancer , and Kidney failure often leads to emergency care and develop psychiatric disorders.

3) Psychosocial factors – it is a very important reason for arising psychiatric disorders such as failure in examination, marital difficulties, divorce, family disputes, failure in love etc.

Psychological factors lead to

1) stupor and catatonic syndrome

2) excited behaviour and violence

It is due to mania, depression, drug and alcohol dependence, and organic and Non-organic psychiatric disorders.

4) Other Psychiatric emergencies are:

a) severe depression

b) insomnia

c) hyperventilation syndrome

d) anorexia nervosa

e) drug or alcohol use disorder

f) psychological crisis( marital conflict, occupational and financial difficulties)

g) panic disorder

h) acute psychosis


5)Suicide- it is the most commonest cause of death among psychiatric patients. It is a crisis that causes intense suffering and feelings of hopelessness and helplessness.


When anyone is faced with a psychiatric emergency, it is important to combine speed with obtaining a complete history/information.

1) Psychiatric history – always obtain a history from both the parents and the informants. Informants may be more knowledgeable and may provide more relevant information.

a) chief complaint

b) recent life changes

c) level of adjustment

d) past history

e) family history

f) drug and alcohol history

2) Detailed general physical and neurological examination

3) Mental status examination

People with a severe disorder die 10to 20 years earlier than the general age consideration.

Mental, Neurological and substance use disorders make up 10% of the global burden of disease and 30% of the non-fatal disease burden.


1) Medication

2) Psychotherapy

3) Electroconvulsive therapy

4) Cognitive behaviour therapy

5) Find out the reason and treat accordingly

Emergency treatment should be on immediate medical care (diagnosis and treatment of the underlying psychiatric problems) and an attempt to establish a bond with the patients.

There are some tips for improving mental health:

1) Get enough sleep

2) see a therapist

3) spend time in nature

4) pursue a hobby

5) spend less time with devices, gadgets and electronics

6) connect with family and friends

7) express yourself

8) forgive yourself

9) practice deep calm breathing

10) do some exercise and yoga

Mental Illness

So, I think, all of you know enough about it and living with family and friends stress-free.

Dr S.k.jha

Can not sleep properly: Is it time to quit it smoking

One of the most common problems, we are feeling in today’s world is killing people is smoking. A lot of people are picking up this habit because of stress, personal issue and more. when someone smokes a cigarette, they are not only hurt themselves but everyone around them.

Cigarette has a major impact on the lungs. Around a third of lung cancer cases happen due to smoking. For instance, it can affect breathing and causes shortness of breath and coughing. Further, it also increases the risk of the respiratory tract infections which ultimately reduces the quality of life.

It is never too late to stop smoking

Many people connect smoking with things. They do it during the day during breaks, drinking a cup of coffee, finishing a meal, talking with friends or doing other work. These are called triggers.

People can get the urge when they feel stressed or down or even when feeling happy or relaxed. Then when people quit, one of these feelings can trigger the urge to smoke.

Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and the numerous health problems directly caused by smoking are well documented. Researchers found that 11.10% of current smokers have trouble falling asleep, 10.8 % wake at night and 10% wake too early in the morning. Insufficient sleep has been associated with numerous physical and mental health problems including depression, diabetes and high blood pressure.

Nicotine is the main addictive drug in tobacco that makes quitting so hard. cigarettes rapidly deliver nicotine to the brain. Inside the brain, nicotine triggers the release of chemicals that make you happy and feel good. As nicotine stimulates parts of the brain over and over, the brain gets used to having nicotine around.

Smoking has major effects like cancer, heart disease, stroke diabetes and more. It also increases the risk of tuberculosis, certain eye disease and problems with the immune system.

When people stop smoking, the brain sets irritable. As a result, people might get anxious or upset. People might have a hard time concentrating or sleeping, have strong urges to smoke or just feel uncomfortable.

So Nicotine Replacement Therapy ( NRT) can help in quit smoking.

To quit successfully, people have to deal with both of these challenges, the brain not having nicotine and not having a cigarette during daily routines. It can be hard to deal with both at once.

With the help and a good action plan, anyone can quit it for good.

Dr S.k.jha


Insomnia is a sleep disorder in which it is difficult to get or maintain sleep. In this problem, people get the inability to obtain an adequate amount of sleep. Sleeping is the most important point in physically and mentally restoring the energy for the tasks ahead.

Most people say that about 6-7 hours of sleep is an adequate amount, however, it differs from person to person depending on their sex, age, and health conditions.

Everyone has encountered some type of insomnia, usually acute insomnia, but when acute becomes diagnosed as a sleep disorder. It is a serious sleeping disorder affecting millions of people per year.


1) Acute insomnia– some causes of acute insomnia are stress, illness, physical or emotional discomfort and when the sleep schedule is interfered. Insomnia makes life very hard for those who are inflicted by it.

2) Chronic insomnia– it can be caused by chronic stress, depression and anxiety.


1) stress

2) anxiety

3) depression

4) excessive caffeine or alcohol

5) changes in work shift

6) environmental factors like noise, light or temperature


1) difficulty getting sleep at night

2) waking up often during the night

3) not feeling refreshed after waking up

4) feeling irritable during the day

5) poor concentration


1) counselling can help in finding out the cause responsible for insomnia and curing the cause

2) lifestyle changes may include decreasing the intake of stimulants like caffeine, nicotine, alcohol etc.

3) behavioural therapy may be used for creating behaviour and an atmosphere conducive to getting good sleep.

4) medication to induce sleep can be used as a temporary measure


1) avoiding stress

2) avoiding caffeine

3) avoiding alcohol

4) increasing physical activities

5) relaxing the body and mind before sleeping

6) creating a comfortable sleeping environment

So, get sound sleep and make life easier and more cheerful.

Dr S.k.jha