Personality Disorder

A personality disorder is a mental health condition that involves long-lasting, disruptive patterns of thinking, behaviour and mood disorder.

There are different types of personality disorders, which have different characteristics and symptoms.

Personality Disorders may cause abnormal behaviour and distress across various aspects of life including work , relationships and social functioning.


1) Cluster A personality disorders

It involves unusual and eccentric thinking or behaviours.

These include:

a) paranoid personality disorder: the main symptoms of this paranoia, which is a relentless , mistrust and suspicion of others without adequate reason for suspicion.

b) schizoid personality disorder – this condition is characterised by a consistent pattern of detachment from and general disinterest in interpersonal relationships.

c) schizotypal personality disorder – people with this condition display a consistent pattern of intense discomfort with and limited need for close relationships.

2) Cluster B personality disorder – it involves dramatic and erratic behaviour. people with those types of conditions display intense, unstable emotions and impulsive behaviours.

It includes:

a) Antisocial personality disorder

b) Borderline personality disorder

c) Histrionic personality disorder – this is characterised by intense, unstable emotions and a distorted self image.They have an overwhelming desire to be noticed by others and may display inappropriate behaviour to get attention.

d) Narcissistic personality disorder – it involves a consistent pattern of perceived superiority, an excessive need for praise and admiration and a lack of empathy for others.

3) Cluster C personality disorder – it involves severe anxiety and fear. They are:

A) Avoidant personality disorder

B) Dependent personality disorder

C) Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

Most Personality Disorders begin in the teen years when their personality develops and matures. As a result, almost all people diagnosed with personality disorders are above the age of 20 years.

Approximately 10℅of the global population suffers from a personality disorder.

Some factors may contribute to the development of personality disorder.

1) Genetic

2) Brain damage

3) Childhood trauma

4) Verbal abuse

5) Cultural factors


1) identity and a sense of self people with personality disorders generally lack a clear or stable image of themselves and how they see themselves often changes depending on the situation.

2) Relationship – people with a personality disorder have difficulty forming close relationships with others due to their problematic beliefs and behaviours. They may lack empathy or respect for others.


1) Their behaviour is inconsistent, frustrating and confusing to loved ones and other people they interact with.

2) They may have an issue with understanding, realistic and acceptable ways to treat others and behave around them.

3) They may be unaware of how their behaviour cause problems for themselves and others.


Personality Disorder is the most difficult disorder to treat because most people with personality disorders don’t think their behaviour is problematic, so they don’t often see treatment.

Some medications can help with symptoms of anxiety and depression, which are common in people with personality disorders.

Psychotherapy can help manage personality disorders.

Since people with personality disorders often don’t want proper medical attention, so the overall prognosis for personality disorders is poor.

The family members of people with personality disorder often experience with stress, depression , grief and isolation.

Studies show that personality disorders are associated with elevated rates of:

1) unemployment

2) Divorce

3) Domestic Violence

4) substance use

5) Homelessness

6) Crime

Untreated personality disorders may result in:

a) Poor relationship

b) Occupational difficulties

c) Impaired social functioning

Dr S.k.jha


Social anxiety disorder

Social anxiety disorder is the fear of social situations and interaction with other people that can automatically bring on a feeling of self -consciousness, judgment, evaluation and inferiority. All of us know that anxiety or stress is common these days. some people may feel nervous or uneasy in a social gathering. Attending public meetings or walking into a hall which is crowded with strangers for him\her is not exactly exciting to them, but most people can go through it.

If a person is usually anxious in social situations but seems fine when they are by themselves, then social anxiety may be the problem.

If someone has a social anxiety disorder, the stress of these situations is difficult to handle. So, people avoid all social contact because things that other people consider normal or comfortable – make them so uncomfortable and anxious.

Social anxiety disorder is a much more common problem than other people think. Millions of people all over the world are suffering from it. The average age is between 14-19 years old – the teenage years. It is one of the most common mental disorder.

People who suffer from social anxiety disorder will worry a lot about making a fool of themselves in front of other people and will feel very anxious before going into any social situations that worry them. When they are actually with people, they will feel even more anxious and may be unable to say or do what is intended.

Anyone with social anxiety disorder can experience it in different ways. Some have-

1) talking to unknown people

2) making eye contact

3) speaking in public

4) entering the room

5) going to parties

6) eating in front of other people

7) going to school or work

8) starting a conversation

Some people don’t feel easy in such situations. All socially anxious people have different reasons for fearing certain situations. But in general, it is the most fearful condition for them-

a) being judged or notice by others

b) being humiliated or embarrassed

c) being the centre of attraction

d) accidentally offending someone

People who have a social anxiety disorder may feel –

1) very self-conscious in social gatherings

2) feeling of fear, tense

3) shy and uncomfortable

4) hesitate to talk with other

5) not like to mix with other people

They might have some physical symptoms such as

1) Rapid heartbeat

2) muscle tension

3) blushing

4) dizziness

5) crying

6) sweating

7) stomach trouble

8) inability to catch a breath

Social anxiety disorder usually comes to around 15 years of age. It can be linked to a history of abuse, bullying or teasing. If anyone develops a health condition that draws attention to his \ or her appearance or voice that could trigger social anxiety too.

When people avoid all social situations, it affects their relationships. It can also lead to

1) low esteem

2) negative thoughts

3) depression

4) poor social skills that don’t improve

So, to overcome a social anxiety disorder, people have to talk to family and friends or in the worst condition consult with a doctor or a therapist.

Prescription medications and behaviour therapy are the two effective treatments for social anxiety disorder. Some need both. Except their therapies are — Relaxation therapy and Beta-blockers.

Dr S.k.jha

Dealing with work stress

Stress is an everyday fact of life. In today’s high-pressure world, the stress and strain of modern living can become increasingly hard to bear. stress is something, which can not be ignored. It creeps in stealthily and has been potential to make you or more of you.

Modern life, with its quick pace, occupational achievements, personal ambition, social pressure, environmental poisons and orientation to sedentary mental work, presents almost all of us with constantly stressful situations.

The four major factors in overload are

1) time pressure

2) excessive responsibility

3) lack of support

4) excessive expectations from self and those around.

Combating the stressful job– anyone can feel how job stressors can be hazardous to their health. This makes stressful work a serious workplace health concern. Ultimately, the best way to reduce stress at work is to eliminate its cause. If an organisation or company wanted to design a workplace, which would enhance employees’ health, psychological well being and productivity of its workers, what would it need to do? So, it is not possible to list all the features of healthy work but here are a few.

Design jobs to –

1) enable workers to vary their tasks and move around at various times during the work day.

2) fit tasks and workflow together to make a complete job

3) Enable workers to understand how their jobs fit into the larger goal of the organisation and to feel they have achieved something meaningful at the end of the shift.

4) allow workers’ input in deciding how their jobs are done, the speed of work and how they will respond to other jobs’ demands.

5) develop clarity in tasks, jobs and roles and minimize conflicting expectations

6) make work ergonomics ( workstation, posture, seating etc) as stress-free as possible

Buffering stress- The role of total support and Adequate social support can cushion the effects of chronic job stressors. There are several sources of social support in the workplace – coworkers, management and union. Social support can range from informal interactions between individuals to more formal ways of providing social support to workers. The employer is very influential in creating a climate for positive social interaction and support in the workplace.There are some things should be allowed –

1) allowing social interaction on the job

2) Provide employee assistance programs which are planned jointly by workers and management such as confidential advice and counselling

3) creating family-friendly programs such as on-site childcare facilities, and flexible working.

4) Develop ways of effectively resolving workplace conflict.

Dealing with stress as an individual

There is a list of ideas which can be helpful. The tests are different methods in a variety of situations.

1) exercise regularly, eat a healthy diet, and get sufficient rest.

2) limit caffeine and alcohol intake

3) make a habit of relaxation

4) enjoy your social relationships

5) talk about your feeling out with someone you can trust

6) Go easy on yourself

7) build some fun into your life every day

Identifying the stressors on your job is a good first step. once you have compiled a list, try to evaluate each item and prioritise them. You can turn to your joint workplace health and safety committee. If there is a contract violation, use the grievance procedure. Maybe a labour management meeting would help.

So, Do your work stress-free at the workplace.

Dr S.k.jha

Depression: What is it and how to come over it?

Depression is a mood disorder where a person’s emotional state is abnormally low or sad and the person can not independently raise his or her mood.

Depression illness is going to be a hidden epidemic around the world. Research shows that the majority of the people who had committed suicide suffer from depressive illness.

Loss of quality work and absenteeism is the highest due to depression than any other illness. Depression destroys the working quality and capacity of people.90% of depressive patients virtually don’t get any treatment.

Now in the current situation, where an economic slowdown, most people lost their jobs, and many suffering from extreme psychological trauma. Apart from this, there is war, violence, social injustice and natural calamities. As a result, thousands of people are a victim of depression. There are an increasing number of suicide and depression among people.

Depression is like all other physical illnesses and is treatable. Awareness about depression is very much needed.

The common symptoms of depressive illness are divided into two groups, physical, related to the body and psychological, related to the mental and emotional state of a person.

Out of the following symptoms, if someone is having the majority of them for more than two weeks, he or she may be suffering from depression.

1) Depressive mood – loss of pleasure in life and unable to enjoy usual activities.

2) Loss of love and affection even towards own children and spouse

3) loss of appetite and loss of weight

4) loneliness, restlessness, crying or tearfulness, feeling sad and miserable

5) loss of energy and feeling tired or exhausted

6) disturbed sleep

7) withdrawal from family and friends

8) diminished sexual desire and activity

9) feeling of hopelessness, helplessness and worthlessness

10) difficulty in concentration and in making decisions.

11) loss of interest in meeting people or watching TV or Movie

12) bitter or sour seasoning dryness of mouth, constipation, heartburn, indigestion and flatulence

13) Aches, pain and burning sensation in body

14) suicidal thoughts or attempts

Depression in children

Depression in children is very real but sometimes illusive illness. The symptoms may be of different types.

1) persistent sad or irritable mood

2) loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. the outburst of shouting.

3) fearful and phobic mood. Depressed and dejected

4) loss of appetite, sleep and weight

5) tendency to unnecessary lying, and withdrawal from everybody. lack in concentration

6) run away from home or desire to do so

7) inattentive in studies and bad performance in the examination and feeling worthless

8) negative thoughts

9) feel unloved, pessimistic or even hopeless about the future

10) talk about death and threaten to commit suicide

Depression in old age

Apart from the usual symptoms of depression, certain symptoms are characteristically present in old age depression.

1) Intense anxiety regarding normal physiological functions like heartbeats, sweating and bowel movements which are called hypochondriasis.

2) restlessness and agitation all over the body. Tendency to hit others for minor reasons.

3) Doubt over neighbours, relatives and family members.

4) forgetfulness is sometimes predominantly present in old age depression, which is called pseudodementia.

Old-age depression is left unrecognised but if detected can be treated effectively in most cases.

Treatment of depressive illness:

All the medicine which are used for the treatment of depression in the world is available everywhere. Treatment does not always require expensive investigations like MRI, CT scan or numerous blood examinations.

People of any age may be affected by depression.

Whatever medicine will be prescribed for depression, it will take two to three weeks to work effectively. Regular intake of medicines in appropriate doses ensures improvement in 100% of cases.

WHO mentioned that heart diseases, metabolic disorders, high blood sugar, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and coronary artery diseases will increase substantially due to depressive illness.

Due to global warming minimum variation of the World’s temperature makes people more vulnerable to mental illness.

According to WHO, 5 to 6 thousand people commit suicide every day in the world. out of them, nearly 90% suffer from depression and most of them expressed their desire to die earlier to their close people in different ways.

Thinks to do

Learn to say no. Don’t be scared without reason. Know yourself.

Love your work and working environment. Make your hobby or interest. Spend time with children and family members.

Keep your personality intact. Keep no complex. Love everybody.

Do regular exercise and meditation. Have six to seven hours of sleep. Eat a healthy balanced diet.


Avoid any addiction. Do not run after unrealistic goals. Do not sit at home alone.

Seek out people who understand your feelings.

Live life in the best way. Try to be positive in your thinking.

Take your medications correctly.

So, live life fully and be positive.

Dr S.k.jha

Clinical Depression

Every test in our life makes us bitter or better, every problem comes to break us or make us.

The choice is ours whether we become a victim or victor.

Everyone in life can feel sad or happy at times. But, depression is a chronic feeling of sadness, emptiness or inability to feel pleasure that may appear to happen with no clear reasons.

Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide.

Depression is a mood disorder that causes persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness and loss of joy in life. It is different from the mood fluctuations that people regularly experience as a part of life.

Depression can take on many forms and may be categorized in several different ways. Some people only have a few symptoms, while others have many.

If depression exists for the long term then, it has a major impact on a person’s quality of life.

Most people go through periods of feeling sadness but when they are depressed may feel a persistently low mood for weeks or months rather than just a few days.

Depression affects people in different ways and can cause a lot of various symptoms.

They range from lasting feelings of unhappiness to losing interest in the things they used to enjoy and feeling very sad. Many people with depression also have symptoms of anxiety.

There can be physical symptoms too, such as the feeling of tiredness, loneliness, sleeping badly, loss of appetite and feeling of pain in some parts of the body.

Most people experience feelings of stress, anxiety or low mood during difficult times.

Signs and symptoms of clinical depression

1) feeling of loneliness, sadness or hopelessness

2) loss of interest or pleasure in all normal activities such as hobbies or sports

3) Angry outbursts, irritability or frustration

4) sleeping too much or sleeping disturbance

5) reduced appetite or increased craving for food and weight gain

6) tiredness and lack of energy, so small work takes extra effort

7) anxiety, agitation or restlessness

8) feeling of hopelessness or guilty

9) lack of concentration, trouble thinking confused, and difficult to make decisions

10) slowed thinking or negative thoughts

11) frequent or recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts

12) unexplained physical problems such as back pain, stomach pain or headache

Clinical depression can affect people of any age including children.

However, clinical depression symptoms even if severe, usually improve with psychological counselling, antidepressant medications or a combination of both.

Treatment for clinical depression can involve a combination of lifestyle changes, medicine and counselling.

For moderate to severe depression, a combination of counselling such as cognitive behaviour therapy and antidepressants is often prescribed for improvement.

Many people with depression benefit by making lifestyle changes such as doing exercise, not taking alcohol, not smoking and eating healthy foods.

So, I think if we are doing this, we don’t get depressed in life.

Life is all about ups and downs, good times and bad times, we have to find the strength to move on and believe that the next chapter of our life will be amazing.

Dr S.k.jha


stroke is a cerebrovascular disease. It affects the blood vessels that feed the brain system. A stroke occurs due to a decrease or blockage of blood supply. Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the world.

A stroke is a serious life-threatening medical condition that happens when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off.

A stroke is a medical emergency and urgent treatment is essential.

Do you ever sit and wonder what you do if something happened to your family members? Something sudden and life-threatening?

I am a bit sure that most of us have causally thought about it.

So, before explaining about stroke, I am anxious about those people who work hard to achieve a luxurious life but at what cost? One more thing, I want to clarify that those people who have high blood pressure, have more chances of stroke. High blood pressure is one of the most risk factor.

I am warning all of you that a stroke can happen to anyone, at any time and age and it can happen suddenly — out of nowhere.

A stroke is a sudden death of a portion of the brain cells due to a lack of oxygen. A stroke occurs when blood flows to the brain is impaired resulting in abnormal brain function. It is one of the leading killers worldwide.

A stroke is caused by artery blockage or ruptures that pause the blood flowing to the brain. This can leave that part of the brain damaged and the affected people may lose control of a function corresponding to that part of the brain.


1) Ischemic stroke – this is the most common type of stroke. A blood clot prevents blood and oxygen from reaching an area of the brain.

2) Hemorrhagic stroke – this occurs when a blood vessel ruptures. These are usually the result of an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformations ( AVMS).

3) Transient ischemic attack(TIA) – this occurs when blood flow to a brain part of the brain is inadequate for a brief period. Some people call this a mini-stroke.

Risk factors/ causes

1) Diabetes

2) Atherosclerosis

3) Smoking

4) High cholesterol

5) High alcohol intake

6) Heredity

7) Heart Disease

8) High blood pressure

9) Trauma

10) Family diseases

11) Obesity

12) Use illicit drugs

Often, a stroke can leave one with selective, partial or full paralysis which may be reversible or irreversible.

Signs and symptoms

1) sudden severe headache

2) blurred vision/ loss of vision

3) dizziness

4) problems in speech and perception

5) loss of balance/ Trouble walking

6) sudden confusion

7) sudden weakness or numbness of the arm, leg or face on one side of the body

8) fatigue

9) hiccups

10) inability to breathe/ tremor

11) facial paralysis

12) sudden loss of balance or coordination

Routine tests in stroke patients

a) full blood test

b) ESR

c) serological test for syphillis

d) blood glucose

e) blood urea

f) protein electrolytes

g) chest x- ray

h) ECG

I) CT scan and MRI

Additional tests in younger patients

1) anti-nuclear factors

2) antibodies to double-stranded DNA

3) anticardiolipin antibodies

4) Lipid profile


1) careful nursing

2) care of airways

3) fluid balance

4) physiotherapy

5) speech and occupational therapy

Specific management

1) if blood pressure rises- take suitable drugs

2) anticoagulants- in case of blockage of an artery

3) vasodilating agents – sometimes needed in some conditions

4) oedema reducing agents – sometimes needed

5) surgery


Treatment depends on the type of stroke, including which part of the brain was affected and what caused it.

Strokes are usually treated with medication. This medicine is used to prevent and dissolved blood clots, reduce blood pressure and reduce cholesterol levels.

In some cases, surgery may also be required to remove blood clots. Surgery may also be required to treat brain swelling and reduce the risk of further bleeding if this was the case of stroke.

People who survive a stroke are often left with long-term problems caused by injury to their brain.

Some people will continue to need some form of care or help with their daily activities.


Stroke can be fatal.

The best way to prevent a stroke is to address the underlying causes.

1) eating a healthy diet

2) maintaining a moderate weight

3) exercise regularly

4) avoiding alcohol

5) not smoking

Stoke can lead to long-term health problems.

The best medication for stroke depends on the origin of a person’s causes, their circumstances and the other drugs they are taking.

How to avoid a stroke

1) check-up regularly

2)do a check-up to find out if any arterial fibrillation is present which can cause the formation of blood clots that may lead to a stroke.

3) quit smoking

4) avoid alcohol intake

5) reduce high cholesterol levels

6) control diabetes

7) regular walking/ exercise

8) if any blood circulation problems that could increase the risk of stroke, consult the doctor

9) take low salt diet

80-85% of strokes are due to cerebral infarction.15-20% are caused by haemorrhage. The most common vascular disorder is atherosclerosis affecting intracranial and extracranial arteries.

So, my dear friends – it is my advice that

Stress less, laugh more

Spend quality time with family members, friends and spouse.

Be happy, and take care of yourself – both mentally and physically.

Dr S.k.jha

Depression: What are the physical symptoms of depression?

Depression nowadays is common among people. It is a common mental health condition that can cause both physical and psychological symptoms. The physical symptoms include fatigue, sleeping more or less than usual and appetite changes.

These symptoms may occur as a result of changes in brain activity, hormone levels or neurotransmitter levels.

There are some physical symptoms of depression:

1) Chest pain– it can be a sign of heart, lung or stomach problems. sometimes, depression can also raise the risk of heart disease. People who have had heart attacks previously are more likely to be depressed.

2) sleep problems – Depression can not only affect the body but also it affects the mind. Trouble sleeping is common in people who are depressed or stressed.

3) Fatigue and exhaustion- if anyone feels so tired that they don’t have energy tasks- even when they sleep or rest a lot- it may be a sign that they are depressed. Depression and fatigue together tend to make both conditions seem worse.

4) Digestive problems – our brain and digestive systems are strongly connected, which is why many of us get stomach pain or nausea when we are stressed or worried.

5) Aching muscles and joints – when we live with continuous pain, it can raise the risk of depression.

Depression may also lead to pain because the two conditions share chemical messengers in the brain. People who are depressed are three times as likely to get regular pain.

6) Headache – Research shows that people with major depression are three times more likely to have migraines and are five times more likely to get depressed.

7) Agitated and restless- sleep problems or other depression symptoms can make agitated and restless. Men are more likely than women to be irritable when they are depressed.

8) Back Pain – when people are hurt regularly, it may contribute to depression. And people who are depressed may be four times more likely to get intense, disabling neck or back pain.

9) changes in appetite – some people feel less hungry when they get depressed. Others can not stop eating and feel hungry often.

Depression has been linked to eating disorders like bulimia, anaemia or binge eating.

10) sexual problems – if anyone is depressed, might lose interest in sex.people will not interested to keep relation in a depressed mood.

11) Exercise – Research suggests that if people do exercise regularly, it releases chemicals in the brain that make them feel good, improve their mood and reduce pain sensitivity.

If someone is depressed, it can be hard to get the energy to do exercise. But, try to remember that can ease fatigue and feel good.

So, depression is a mood disorder that affects how someone thinks, feels and behaves. It may cause them to feel sad, worthless or numb for a prolonged period.

Dr S.k.jha

Types of Depression

Depression is a medical condition that affects anyone, no matter their age, gender or circumstances. It affects the mood and ability to function. Women may experience depression more often than men.

Depression is common all over the world. Without treatment, depression can get worse and last longer. In severe cases, it can lead to self-harm or death.

Usually, people feel sad or depressed once in a while, but when they are sad most of the time and it affects their daily life, may suffer from clinical depression.

There are different types of depression:

1) Major depression( clinically known as clinical depression) – it is characterised by a combination of symptoms that interfere with a person’s ability to work, sleep, eat and enjoy once pleasurable activities.

Sometimes, they may feel sad, lonely or hopeless for a few days but major depression- lasts longer and is disabling. It can prevent functionality normally. The depressed mood or loss of interest will remain daily for at least two-three weeks.

2) Chronic depression or Dysthymia

It is characterised by a long-term ( two years or more) depressed mood. It is less severe than major depression and typically does not disable the person.

3) Atypical depression- the key symptoms are a) overeating

b) oversleeping

c) fatigue

d) extreme sensitivity to rejection

e) moods that worsen or improve indirectly in response to events.

3) Bipolar Depression– it is a complex mood disorder that alternates between periods of clinical depression and times of extreme elation or mania.

There are two subtypes:

1) Bipolar 1 disorder – in this case, the patient has a history of at least one manic episode with or without major depressive episodes.

2) Bipolar 2- patients have a history of at least one episode of major depression and at least one hypomanic( mildly elated) episode.

4) Seasonal depression often called seasonal affective disorder – it is a depression that occurs each year at the same time.It starts usually in the winter and ends in spring or early summer. It is a rare form of SAD known as “summer depression” begins in late spring or early summer and ends in fall.

5) Psychotic depression– delusional thoughts or other symptoms of psychosis accompany the symptoms of depression. Patients with psychotic depression experience hallucinations and delusions.

6) Persistent depressive disorder – if people have depression for more than 2 years or longer, it is called a persistent depressive disorder. These are some symptoms – a) sleeping too much or too little

b) changes in appetite

c) lack of energy

d) low self-esteem

e) lack of concentration

f) feeling hopeless

7) Postpartum depression – as many as 70% of new moms get the ” baby blue ” but about one in 10 moms develop a more serious condition called postpartum depression.

8) Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder( PMOD) – women with PMOD have depression and other symptoms at the start of their period.

Symptoms are- mood swings, irritability, anxiety, trouble concentrating, fatigue etc.

9) Situational depression- people may have a depressed mood when they are having trouble managing stressful events in their life such as the loss of a family member, a divorce or losing a job.

So, these are some types of depression.

I hope, all of you will take care of your health.

Dr S.k.jha

Depression Triggers as we age: what are the factors?

Each year more than 45 million people in the world suffer from depression and anxiety disorder. Fear, anxiety, and stress are a normal part of life, even adaptive in many conditions.

There are some factors/ triggers which can affect people in some way.

1) Midlife can make miserable – according to research, midlife depression affects the globe. In the world, it peaks at around age 40 for women and 50 plus for men and usually starts to lift in the 50.

2) Depression trigger: overload of work – women suffer from the demands of children, ageing parents, marriage and jobs. They are feeling sad, worthless and guilty.

3) Changes in sex drive– as men age increase, their bodies produce less of the important sex hormone testosterone. Low testosterone levels can cause depression as well as erectile dysfunction, trouble getting an erection – and a decreased interest in sex. They lead to depression in people both men and women.

4) Thyroid disorders – in the case of overactive thyroid, it could be accompanied by heart problems, tremors or fatigue. An underactive thyroid can cause constipation or fatigue.

5) Achy joints – living with chronic pain such as arthritis or gout, and osteoarthritis increase the chance of having depression.

6) Perimenopause or menopause – Hormone fluctuations hit flushes and life changes related to perimenopause and menopause can make the mood swing. Mood swings or depression may worsen during this transitional period.

7) Low vitamin B12 – low vitamin B12 level may be caused by depression or lethargy.

8) Type 2 diabetes – Depression is a common and dangerous complication of many chronic conditions, including diabetes.

9) Drinking habits – about 1 in 5 older people, and young people who drink heavily have major depression. Some people start drinking more because of stressful events such as retirement or an overload of work in the office and home.

10) Poor sleep – Insomnia and other sleep disruptions which are common as we age, are closely related to depression. Obstructive sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome also have been linked to depression.

11) Retirement – if anyone were forced to retire because of poor health or other reasons – might very well be depressed. Factors such as financial insecurity or lack of social support can also make retirement or depressing conditions.

12) Heart problems – it is common to feel depressed after a diagnosis of heart disease or having a heart attack or cardiac surgery. But, many people with heart disease go on to experience severe, long-term depression.

13) Loneliness – social support can help prevent or ease depression. Those people who stayed connected with friends living elsewhere had less depression.


So, maintain keep in touch with close friends.

14) Health conditions – any chronic or serious condition such as Parkinson’s disease or a stroke can lead to depression. A stroke can also affect the areas of the brain that control mood.

15) Grief– It is normal to grieve after losing a spouse or other loved one. Memory problems, confusion and social withdrawal can be symptoms of depression.

16) Laughter– A good laugh can relax muscles, reduce stress and relieve anxiety. It can change the mood and feel relaxed.

So, take care of your health because depression is a medical illness- a health problem related to changes in the brain.

Dr S.k.jha

Anxiety and Depression: Nowadays

Each year more than 45 million people in the world suffer from an anxiety disorder and over 28 million people suffer from some type of depressive illness in their life. Having anxiety and depression is like being scared and tired at the same time.

It is the fear of failure but no urge to be productive. More than 45 -50 Lakhs people in the world suffer from an anxiety disorder and over 20-38 Lakhs people are suffering from some type of depressive illness. Fear, anxiety and stress are a normal part of life and even adaptive in many conditions. Usually, normal anxiety keeps us alert.

Anxiety is universal as sadness. people are scared and fear of this cat and rat race life. They are not coming out and living stress-free Life. Some are losing a job, some are living in poverty and some are not adjusted to life.

Anxiety is a psychological experience, separated from the syndrome with prominent physical symptoms. It is wanting friends, and family but hating socialising. It is wanting to be alone but not wanting to be lonely. It is feeling everything once and then feeling paralysingly numb.

Actually, anxiety and depression are one of the most common mental disorders. No one has escaped from anxiety and depression in their lives.

DSM4 – described five forms of anxiety disorders: –

1) panic

2) generalised anxiety disorder

3) obsessive-compulsive disorder

4) phobia

5) post-traumatic stress disorder( PTSD)

So, normally anxiety and stress are common factors in life also, which affect the health of people. Everyone gets nervous or anxious from time to time, but nowadays, due to a busy schedule in life, people are suffering more.

Anxiety comes in many different forms – such as phobia, panic attacks and social anxiety. Being anxious and depressed can make feel hopeless. Changing behaviour, physical activity, lifestyle and even one way of thinking — all are depression problems.

Spend time with good people who are good for your mental health.


1) Dizziness

2) confusion

3) out of body experience

4) early rising

5)Blurred vision

6) clinched stomach

7) hot/ cold flushes

8) headache

9) chest pain

10) shallow breathing

11) Tingling arms and legs

12) shaky etc

So, depression and anxiety affect people in their work-life, family life and social life. Depression and anxiety carry a higher risk of suicidal tendency.

More than 80% of people with clinical depression can be successfully treated with early recognition, intervention and support.

So, remember your strongest muscle and worst enemy are your minds.

Train it well

Depression is a mood disorder with feelings of sadness, loss or anger that interfere with a person’s daily life.

People in a depressing stage

So, I hope everyone will agree with me and live life stress-free.

Dr S.k.jha