Inflammatory bowel disease

Many people are suffering from inflammatory diseases of bowel, but ignorance of knowledge and not thinking about their health will get the problem later.

People with IBD ( Inflammatory bowel disease) like chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis have chronic inflammation.

Actually, IBD is a group of disorders that cause chronic inflammation( pain and swelling) in the intestine.IBD includes chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Both types affect the digestive system. Proper treatment can help manage this lifelong condition.


a) stomach cramps

b) Diarrhoea

c) gas

d) bloating

d) loss of appetite

e) mucus or blood in stool

f) upset stomach

Rarely, IBD may also cause-

1) fatigue

2) fever

3) itchy, red, painful eye

4) joint pain

5) nausea and vomiting

6) skin rashes and sores( ulcer)

7) vision problems

Nearly, 4-5 million Americans and other people from different countries have some form of IBD. This condition affects all ages and genders. IBD most commonly occur between the age of 15 and 30.


chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the main types of IBD.

1) Chron’s disease – it causes pain and swelling in the digestive tract. It can affect any part of the mouth to the anus. It most commonly affects the small intestine and upper part of the large intestine.

2) Ulcerative colitis – it causes swelling and sores(ulcers) in the large intestine( colon and rectum).

3) Microscopic colitis– it causes intestinal inflammation that is only detectable with a microscope.


Researchers and scientists are still trying to determine the reason about IBD.

Three factors appear to play a role –

1) Genetics – as many as 1 in 4 people with IBD have a family history of the disease.

2) Immune system response – the immune system typically fights off infection. In people with IBD, the immune system mistakes foods for Foreign substances. It releases antibodies ( proteins) to fight off this threat, causing the IBD system.

3) Environmental triggers – people with a family history of IBD may develop the disease after exposure to an environmental trigger.

These triggers include smoking, stress, medication use and depression.

Diagnosis test

1) blood examination

2) colonoscopy – to examine the large and small intestine

3) EUS( endoscopic ultrasound) – to check the digestive system for swelling and pain

4) Flexible sigmoidoscopy – to examine the inside of the rectum

5) Imaging scans such as CT scans or MRI – to check for signs of information or abscesses.

6) Upper endoscopy – to examine the digestive tract from the mouth to the start of the small intestine.

7) Capsule endoscopy- using a small camera device that you swallow. The camera capture images as it travels through the digestive tract.


People with IBD have a higher risk of developing colon ( colorectal) cancer.

Others are

a) anal fistula

b) anaemia

c) anal stenosis

d) kidney stones

e) liver diseases such as cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis

f) osteoporosis

g) perforated bowel( hole or tear in the large intestine)

h) toxic megacolon ( severe intestine swelling)

Management and treatment

IBD treatment varies depending on the particular type and symptoms, medications can help control inflammation.

1) Aminosalicylates

2) Corticosteroids such as prednisone

Others are- anti-diarrheal medicine, NSAIDs, vitamins and supplements like probiotics

Surgical treatment for chron’s disease

As many as 8 in 12 people with a chron’s disease eventually need surgery, where medications no longer period symptom relief.

In the case of ulcerative colitis – after 30+ years of living with ulcerative colitis, about 1 in 3 people need surgery.


1) eat a smaller meal every two to four hours

2) quit smoking

3) find a healthy way to manage stress such as medication, movement like going for a walk or listening to music

4) get plenty of sleep and stay physically active

5) reduce foods that irritate the intestines such as spicy, greasy or made with milk if they are not digested.

6) cut off caffeine, carbonated and alcoholic beverages. Drink more water to prevent dehydration.

So, take care and keep healthy.

Dr S.k.jha


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