Personality Disorder

A personality disorder is a mental health condition that involves long-lasting, disruptive patterns of thinking, behaviour and mood disorder.

There are different types of personality disorders, which have different characteristics and symptoms.

Personality Disorders may cause abnormal behaviour and distress across various aspects of life including work , relationships and social functioning.


1) Cluster A personality disorders

It involves unusual and eccentric thinking or behaviours.

These include:

a) paranoid personality disorder: the main symptoms of this paranoia, which is a relentless , mistrust and suspicion of others without adequate reason for suspicion.

b) schizoid personality disorder – this condition is characterised by a consistent pattern of detachment from and general disinterest in interpersonal relationships.

c) schizotypal personality disorder – people with this condition display a consistent pattern of intense discomfort with and limited need for close relationships.

2) Cluster B personality disorder – it involves dramatic and erratic behaviour. people with those types of conditions display intense, unstable emotions and impulsive behaviours.

It includes:

a) Antisocial personality disorder

b) Borderline personality disorder

c) Histrionic personality disorder – this is characterised by intense, unstable emotions and a distorted self image.They have an overwhelming desire to be noticed by others and may display inappropriate behaviour to get attention.

d) Narcissistic personality disorder – it involves a consistent pattern of perceived superiority, an excessive need for praise and admiration and a lack of empathy for others.

3) Cluster C personality disorder – it involves severe anxiety and fear. They are:

A) Avoidant personality disorder

B) Dependent personality disorder

C) Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

Most Personality Disorders begin in the teen years when their personality develops and matures. As a result, almost all people diagnosed with personality disorders are above the age of 20 years.

Approximately 10℅of the global population suffers from a personality disorder.

Some factors may contribute to the development of personality disorder.

1) Genetic

2) Brain damage

3) Childhood trauma

4) Verbal abuse

5) Cultural factors


1) identity and a sense of self people with personality disorders generally lack a clear or stable image of themselves and how they see themselves often changes depending on the situation.

2) Relationship – people with a personality disorder have difficulty forming close relationships with others due to their problematic beliefs and behaviours. They may lack empathy or respect for others.


1) Their behaviour is inconsistent, frustrating and confusing to loved ones and other people they interact with.

2) They may have an issue with understanding, realistic and acceptable ways to treat others and behave around them.

3) They may be unaware of how their behaviour cause problems for themselves and others.


Personality Disorder is the most difficult disorder to treat because most people with personality disorders don’t think their behaviour is problematic, so they don’t often see treatment.

Some medications can help with symptoms of anxiety and depression, which are common in people with personality disorders.

Psychotherapy can help manage personality disorders.

Since people with personality disorders often don’t want proper medical attention, so the overall prognosis for personality disorders is poor.

The family members of people with personality disorder often experience with stress, depression , grief and isolation.

Studies show that personality disorders are associated with elevated rates of:

1) unemployment

2) Divorce

3) Domestic Violence

4) substance use

5) Homelessness

6) Crime

Untreated personality disorders may result in:

a) Poor relationship

b) Occupational difficulties

c) Impaired social functioning

Dr S.k.jha


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