stroke is a cerebrovascular disease. It affects the blood vessels that feed the brain system. A stroke occurs due to a decrease or blockage of blood supply. Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the world.

A stroke is a serious life-threatening medical condition that happens when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off.

A stroke is a medical emergency and urgent treatment is essential.

Do you ever sit and wonder what you do if something happened to your family members? Something sudden and life-threatening?

I am a bit sure that most of us have causally thought about it.

So, before explaining about stroke, I am anxious about those people who work hard to achieve a luxurious life but at what cost? One more thing, I want to clarify that those people who have high blood pressure, have more chances of stroke. High blood pressure is one of the most risk factor.

I am warning all of you that a stroke can happen to anyone, at any time and age and it can happen suddenly — out of nowhere.

A stroke is a sudden death of a portion of the brain cells due to a lack of oxygen. A stroke occurs when blood flows to the brain is impaired resulting in abnormal brain function. It is one of the leading killers worldwide.

A stroke is caused by artery blockage or ruptures that pause the blood flowing to the brain. This can leave that part of the brain damaged and the affected people may lose control of a function corresponding to that part of the brain.


1) Ischemic stroke – this is the most common type of stroke. A blood clot prevents blood and oxygen from reaching an area of the brain.

2) Hemorrhagic stroke – this occurs when a blood vessel ruptures. These are usually the result of an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformations ( AVMS).

3) Transient ischemic attack(TIA) – this occurs when blood flow to a brain part of the brain is inadequate for a brief period. Some people call this a mini-stroke.

Risk factors/ causes

1) Diabetes

2) Atherosclerosis

3) Smoking

4) High cholesterol

5) High alcohol intake

6) Heredity

7) Heart Disease

8) High blood pressure

9) Trauma

10) Family diseases

11) Obesity

12) Use illicit drugs

Often, a stroke can leave one with selective, partial or full paralysis which may be reversible or irreversible.

Signs and symptoms

1) sudden severe headache

2) blurred vision/ loss of vision

3) dizziness

4) problems in speech and perception

5) loss of balance/ Trouble walking

6) sudden confusion

7) sudden weakness or numbness of the arm, leg or face on one side of the body

8) fatigue

9) hiccups

10) inability to breathe/ tremor

11) facial paralysis

12) sudden loss of balance or coordination

Routine tests in stroke patients

a) full blood test

b) ESR

c) serological test for syphillis

d) blood glucose

e) blood urea

f) protein electrolytes

g) chest x- ray

h) ECG

I) CT scan and MRI

Additional tests in younger patients

1) anti-nuclear factors

2) antibodies to double-stranded DNA

3) anticardiolipin antibodies

4) Lipid profile


1) careful nursing

2) care of airways

3) fluid balance

4) physiotherapy

5) speech and occupational therapy

Specific management

1) if blood pressure rises- take suitable drugs

2) anticoagulants- in case of blockage of an artery

3) vasodilating agents – sometimes needed in some conditions

4) oedema reducing agents – sometimes needed

5) surgery


Treatment depends on the type of stroke, including which part of the brain was affected and what caused it.

Strokes are usually treated with medication. This medicine is used to prevent and dissolved blood clots, reduce blood pressure and reduce cholesterol levels.

In some cases, surgery may also be required to remove blood clots. Surgery may also be required to treat brain swelling and reduce the risk of further bleeding if this was the case of stroke.

People who survive a stroke are often left with long-term problems caused by injury to their brain.

Some people will continue to need some form of care or help with their daily activities.


Stroke can be fatal.

The best way to prevent a stroke is to address the underlying causes.

1) eating a healthy diet

2) maintaining a moderate weight

3) exercise regularly

4) avoiding alcohol

5) not smoking

Stoke can lead to long-term health problems.

The best medication for stroke depends on the origin of a person’s causes, their circumstances and the other drugs they are taking.

How to avoid a stroke

1) check-up regularly

2)do a check-up to find out if any arterial fibrillation is present which can cause the formation of blood clots that may lead to a stroke.

3) quit smoking

4) avoid alcohol intake

5) reduce high cholesterol levels

6) control diabetes

7) regular walking/ exercise

8) if any blood circulation problems that could increase the risk of stroke, consult the doctor

9) take low salt diet

80-85% of strokes are due to cerebral infarction.15-20% are caused by haemorrhage. The most common vascular disorder is atherosclerosis affecting intracranial and extracranial arteries.

So, my dear friends – it is my advice that

Stress less, laugh more

Spend quality time with family members, friends and spouse.

Be happy, and take care of yourself – both mentally and physically.

Dr S.k.jha


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